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Haitian Revolution information


Haitian Revolution
Part of the Atlantic Revolutions, French Revolutionary Wars, and Napoleonic Wars.
Revolucion Haitiana.png
Collage of the Haitian Revolution
Date21 August 1791 – 1 January 1804
(12 years, 4 months, 1 week and 4 days)
Location
Saint-Domingue
Result

Haitian victory

  • French colonial government expelled
  • Massacre of the French
Territorial
changes
Independent Empire of Haiti established
Belligerents
1791–1793
  • Haitian Revolution St. Dominican Rebels
  • Haitian Revolution Spain (from 1793)
1791–1793
  • Haitian Revolution St. Dominican Royalists
  • Haitian Revolution Kingdom of France (until 1792)
  • Haitian Revolution French Republic
1793–1798
  • Haitian Revolution French Republic
    • Haitian Revolution St. Dominican Rebels
1793–1798
  • Haitian Revolution St. Dominican Royalists
  • Haitian Revolution Great Britain
  • Haitian Revolution Spain (until 1796)
1798–1801
  • Haitian Revolution Louverture Loyalists
1798–1801
  • Haitian Revolution Rigaud Loyalists
  • Haitian Revolution Spain
1802–1804
  • Haitian Revolution Armée Indigène
    • Haitian Revolution Polish Rebels
  • Haitian Revolution United Kingdom
1802–1804
  • Haitian Revolution France
    • Haitian Revolution Polish Legions
  • Haitian Revolution Spain
Commanders and leaders
1791–1793
  • Haitian Revolution Dutty Boukman 
  • Haitian Revolution Georges Biassou
  • Haitian Revolution Vincent Ogé Executed
  • Haitian Revolution André Rigaud
1793–1798
  • Haitian Revolution Paul-Louis Dubuc
  • Haitian Revolution Thomas Maitland
  • Haitian Revolution Joaquín Moreno
1798–1801
  • Haitian Revolution Toussaint Louverture
1802–1804
  • Haitian Revolution Toussaint Louverture Surrendered
  • Haitian Revolution Jean-Jacques Dessalines
  • Haitian Revolution Henri Christophe
  • Haitian Revolution Alexandre Pétion
  • Haitian Revolution François Capois
  • Haitian Revolution John Duckworth
  • Haitian Revolution John Loring
1791–1793
  • Haitian Revolution Viscount de Blanchelande
  • Haitian Revolution Léger-Félicité Sonthonax
1793–1798
  • Haitian Revolution Toussaint Louverture
  • Haitian Revolution André Rigaud
  • Haitian Revolution Alexandre Pétion
1798–1801
  • Haitian Revolution André Rigaud
1802–1804
  • Haitian Revolution Napoleon Bonaparte
  • Haitian Revolution Charles Leclerc 
  • Haitian Revolution Vicomte de Rochambeau Surrendered
  • Haitian Revolution Villaret de Joyeuse
  • Haitian Revolution Federico Gravina
Strength
  • Regular army: 55,000
  • Volunteers: 100,000+
  • 31,000[1]
  • Regular army: 60,000
  • 86 warships and frigates
Casualties and losses
Haitians:
  • 200,000 dead[2]
  • British: 45,000 dead[2]
France: 75,000 dead[2]
White colonists: 25,000[2]

The Haitian Revolution (French: révolution haïtienne French pronunciation: ​[ʁevɔlysjɔ̃ a.i.sjɛn]; Haitian Creole: revolisyon ayisyen) was a successful insurrection by self-liberated slaves against French colonial rule in Saint-Domingue, now the sovereign state of Haiti. The revolt began on 22 August 1791,[3] and ended in 1804 with the former colony's independence. It involved black, biracial, French, Spanish, British, and Polish participants—with the ex-slave Toussaint Louverture emerging as Haiti's most charismatic hero. The revolution was the only slave uprising that led to the founding of a state which was both free from slavery (though not from forced labour[4]) and ruled by non-whites and former captives.[5] It is now widely seen as a defining moment in the history of the Atlantic World.[6][7]

Haitian Revolution
Haiti at the beginning of the Haitian revolution in 1791.

The revolution's effects on the institution of slavery were felt throughout the Americas. The end of French rule and the abolition of slavery in the former colony was followed by a successful defense of the freedoms the former slaves won and, with the collaboration of already free people of color, their independence from white Europeans.[8][9][10] The revolution represented the largest slave uprising since Spartacus' unsuccessful revolt against the Roman Republic nearly 1,900 years earlier,[11] and challenged long-held European beliefs about alleged black inferiority and about slaves' ability to achieve and maintain their own freedom. The rebels' organizational capacity and tenacity under pressure inspired stories that shocked and frightened slave owners in the hemisphere.[12]

  1. ^ Madiou, Thomas (1848). Histoire d'Haiti Volume 3 of Histoire d'Haïti [1492]. J. Courtois. p. 313.
  2. ^ a b c d Scheina. Latin America's Wars. Potomac Books. p. 1772.
  3. ^ Adam Hochschild (2005). Bury the Chains. Houghton Mifflin. p. 257.
  4. ^ Ghachem, Malick W.; Danforth, Susan. "The Other Revolution". John Carter Brown Library. Brown University. Retrieved 11 March 2022.
  5. ^ Franklin W. Knight (February 2000). "The Haitian Revolution". The American Historical Review. 105 (1): 103–15. doi:10.2307/2652438. JSTOR 2652438.
  6. ^ "Why Haiti should be at the centre of the Age of Revolution – Laurent Dubois". Aeon Essays. Retrieved 4 September 2019.
  7. ^ Joseph, Celucien L. (2012). "'The Haitian Turn': An Appraisal of Recent Literary and Historiographical Works on the Haitian Revolution". Journal of Pan African Studies. 5 (6): 37–55.
  8. ^ Taber, Robert D. (2015). "Navigating Haiti's History: Saint-Domingue and the Haitian Revolution". History Compass. 13 (5): 235–50. doi:10.1111/hic3.12233.
  9. ^ Bongie, Chris (2008). Friends and Enemies: The Scribal Politics of Post/colonial Literature. Liverpool, UK: Liverpool University Press. p. 45. ISBN 978-1846311420.
  10. ^ Curtis Comstock, Sandra (2012). Incorporating Comparisons in the Rift: Making Use of Cross-Place Events and Histories in Moments of World Historical Change, a chapter in Anna Amelina, Beyond methodological nationalism: research methodologies for cross-border studies. Taylor and Francis. pp. 183–85. ISBN 978-0-415-89962-8.
  11. ^ Vulliamy, Ed, ed. (28 August 2010). "The 10 best revolutionaries". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
  12. ^ Philip James Kaisary (2008). The Literary Impact of the Haitian Revolution, PhD dissertation. University of Warwick. pp. 8–10.

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