Global Information Lookup Global Information

History of Haiti information


The recorded history of Haiti began in 1492, when the European captain and explorer Christopher Columbus landed on a large island in the region of the western Atlantic Ocean that later came to be known as the Caribbean. The western portion of the island of Hispaniola, where Haiti is situated, was inhabited by the Taíno and Arawakan people, who called their island Ayiti. The island was promptly claimed for the Spanish Crown, where it was named La Isla Española ("the Spanish Island"), later Latinized to Hispaniola. By the early 17th century, the French had built a settlement on the west of Hispaniola and called it Saint-Domingue. Prior to the Seven Years' War (1756–1763), the economy of Saint-Domingue gradually expanded, with sugar and, later, coffee becoming important export crops. After the war which had disrupted maritime commerce, the colony underwent rapid expansion. In 1767, it exported indigo, cotton and 72 million pounds of raw sugar. By the end of the century, the colony encompassed a third of the entire Atlantic slave trade.

In 1791, slaves staged a revolt which led to the Haitian Revolution. André Rigaud, leader of the revolution, forced the French to withdraw. When Toussaint Louverture declared independence in 1802, Napoleon sent an invasion force to coerce the Haitians. After the death of Toussaint while in imprisonment by the French, the Generals Jean-Jacques Dessalines, Henri Christophe, and Alexandre Pétion laid heavy battle against Charles Leclerc, the leader of the French invasion. As the tide of the war turned in favor of the Haitians, Napoleon abandoned the invasion, which led to Dessalines declaring the independence of Haiti in 1804. Dessalines orchestrated a massacre of the remaining French population in Haiti, resulting in over 5,000 deaths. Men, women, and children were killed as revenge for Napoleon's invasion. Whites were hanged from gallows along the coast, signaling to passing ships that Haiti had purged itself of Europeans.

Soon after independence, Haiti was proclaimed an empire under Dessalines. When Dessalines was overthrown in a coup d'état, Haiti then divided off into two regions, controlled by rival regimes, with Christophe ruling the semi-feudal northern State of Haiti and Pétion ruling the more tolerant southern Republic of Haiti. Jean-Pierre Boyer succeeded Pétion in 1811; he consolidated power in the west and invaded Santo Domingo, thereby unifying Hispaniola. However, the nation struggled economically due to indemnity payments beginning in 1825. In 1843, Haiti descended into chaos after a revolt which overthrew Boyer; the nation was then run by short-lived emperors and generals. A more workable constitution was introduced under Michel Domingue in 1874, leading to a long period of democratic peace and development for Haiti.

Haiti was occupied by the United States from 1915 to 1934. After the occupation, President Sténio Vincent forced through a new constitution that allowed for sweeping powers for the executive branch. The first civilian president, Dumarsais Estimé, ruled for five years until 1950. After a brief period of instability, François Duvalier rose to prominence and painted himself as the legitimate heir to Estimé. His regime is regarded as one of the most repressive and corrupt of modern times; his son, Jean-Claude, saw Haiti's economic and political condition continue to decline, although some of the more fearsome elements of his father's regime were abolished. The period after Duvalier was dominated by the presidency of Jean-Bertrand Aristide until his downfall in the controversial 2004 coup d'état. A major 7.0 magnitude earthquake hit the country in 2010 and caused widespread devastation.

and 25 Related for: History of Haiti information

Request time (Page generated in 1.0044 seconds.)

History of Haiti

Last Update:

recorded history of Haiti began in 1492, when the European captain and explorer Christopher Columbus landed on a large island in the region of the western...

Word Count : 16482

Haiti

Last Update:

Haiti (/ˈheɪti/ HAY-tee; French: Haïti [a.iti]; Haitian Creole: Ayiti [ajiti]), officially the Republic of Haiti (French: République d'Haïti; Haitian...

Word Count : 22563

Timeline of Haitian history

Last Update:

This is a timeline of Haitian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Haiti and its predecessor states. To...

Word Count : 75

United States occupation of Haiti

Last Update:

States occupation of Haiti began on July 28, 1915, when 330 U.S. Marines landed at Port-au-Prince, Haiti, after the National City Bank of New York convinced...

Word Count : 10348

Haitian Americans

Last Update:

Haitian Americans (French: Haïtiens-Américains; Haitian Creole: ayisyen ameriken) are a group of Americans of full or partial Haitian origin or descent...

Word Count : 4003

History of the Jews in Haiti

Last Update:

The history of the Jews in Haiti stretches from the beginning of the European settlement until the modern day. As of 2013, the Jewish population was around...

Word Count : 1479

List of heads of state of Haiti

Last Update:

President History of Haiti Saint-Domingue List of colonial governors of Saint-Domingue Politics of Haiti President of Haiti Prime Minister of Haiti List of prime...

Word Count : 644

Economy of Haiti

Last Update:

Haiti is a free market economy with low labor costs. A republic, it was a French colony before gaining independence in an uprising by its enslaved people...

Word Count : 3980

2010 Haiti earthquake

Last Update:

The 2010 Haiti earthquake was a catastrophic magnitude 7.0 Mw earthquake that struck Haiti at 16:53 local time (21:53 UTC) on Tuesday, 12 January 2010...

Word Count : 17881

Politics of Haiti

Last Update:

The politics of Haiti takes place in the framework of a unitary semi-presidential republic, where the president is the head of state and the prime minister...

Word Count : 1695

Armed Forces of Haiti

Last Update:

Forces of Haiti (French: Forces Armées d'Haïti—FAd'H), consisted of the Haitian Army, Haitian Navy (at times), the Haitian Air Force, Haitian Coast Guard...

Word Count : 3369

Haiti Independence Debt

Last Update:

The Haiti indemnity controversy involves an 1825 agreement between Haiti and France that included France demanding an indemnity of 150 million francs to...

Word Count : 3970

History of Haitian nationality and citizenship

Last Update:

Republic of Haiti is located on western portion of the island Hispaniola in the Caribbean. Haiti declared its independence from France in the aftermath of the...

Word Count : 6534

Haitian Creole

Last Update:

worldwide, and is one of the two official languages of Haiti (the other being French), where it is the native language of the vast majority of the population...

Word Count : 10015

List of monarchs of Haiti

Last Update:

The monarchs of Haiti (French: monarques d'Haïti, Haitian Creole: Monak Ayiti) were the heads of state and rulers of Haiti on three non-consecutive occasions...

Word Count : 292

Polish Haitians

Last Update:

Polish Haitians (Haitian Creole: Polonè-Ayisyen, colloquially: Lepologne; Polish: Polscy Haitańczycy, Polonia w Haiti, Polacy w Haiti; French: Haïtiens...

Word Count : 1112

Haitian cuisine

Last Update:

Haitian cuisine consists of cooking traditions and practices from Haiti. It is a Creole cuisine that originates from a blend of several culinary styles...

Word Count : 2884

Military history of Haiti

Last Update:

The origins of the military history of Haiti lie in the country's revolution. A decade of warfare produced a military cadre from which Haiti's early leaders...

Word Count : 2604

Gendarmerie of Haiti

Last Update:

The Gendarmerie of Haiti (French: Gendarmerie d'Haïti [ʒɑ̃daʁməʁi da.iti]), also known as the Haitian Constabulary, was a gendarmerie raised by the United...

Word Count : 2064

Haitian Revolution

Last Update:

The Haitian Revolution (French: révolution haïtienne or French: La guerre de l'indépendance French pronunciation: [ʁevɔlysjɔ̃ a.i.sjɛn]; Haitian Creole:...

Word Count : 17898

Slavery in Haiti

Last Update:

Slavery in Haiti began after the arrival of Christopher Columbus on the island in 1492 with the European colonists that followed from Portugal, Spain and...

Word Count : 9962

Haiti national football team

Last Update:

The Haiti national football team (French: Équipe d'Haïti de football, Haitian Creole: Ekip foutbòl Ayiti) represents Haiti in international football. Haiti...

Word Count : 4525

Haitian occupation of Santo Domingo

Last Update:

The Haitian occupation of Santo Domingo (Spanish: Ocupación haitiana de Santo Domingo; French: Occupation haïtienne de Saint-Domingue; Haitian Creole:...

Word Count : 5383

Second Empire of Haiti

Last Update:

The Second Empire of Haiti, officially known as the Empire of Haiti (French: Empire d'Haïti, Haitian Creole: Anpi an Ayiti), was a state which existed...

Word Count : 1547

History of rail transport in Haiti

Last Update:

are now closed. Trains portal Haiti portal History of Haiti History of rail transport by country "THE TRAMWAYS OF HAITI". www.tramz.com. Archived from...

Word Count : 704

PDF Search Engine © AllGlobal.net