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Ahmad ibn Hanbal information


Abū ʿAbdillāh Aḥmad Ibn Muḥammad Ibn Ḥanbal al-Dhuhli
أَبُو عَبْد ٱلله أَحْمَد بْن مُحَمَّد بْن حَنْبَل الذهلي
Ahmad ibn Hanbal Masjid an-Nabawi Calligraphy.png
Aḥmad bin Ḥanbal's name in Arabic calligraphy
TitleShaykh al-Islām, Imam
Personal
BornNovember 780 CE
Rabi-ul-Awwal 164 AH[1]
Baghdad, Abbasid Caliphate[2] [3]
Died2 August 855 CE
12 Rabi-ul-Awwal 241 AH (aged 74–75)[1]
Baghdad, Abbasid Caliphate[4]
ReligionIslam
EraIslamic Golden Age
RegionIraq
JurisprudenceIjtihad
CreedAtharī
Main interest(s)Fiqh, Ḥadīth, Aqeedah[4]
Notable idea(s)Hanbali Madhab
Notable work(s)Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal
Radd ʿala’l-Ḏj̲ahmiyya wa’l-Zanādiḳa
Kitāb al-Sunnah
OccupationScholar of Islam, muhaddith
Muslim leader
Influenced by
  • Al-Shafi‘i,[4] Sufyan ibn `Uyaynah, ‘Abd ar-Razzaq as-San‘ani
Influenced
  • Particularly jurists, theologians and mystics of the Hanbali school like Abu Dawood, ʻAbd Allāh ibn Aḥmad Ibn Ḥanbal, Harb ibn Ismail al-Kirmani, Al-Qadi Abu Ya'la, Ibn Aqil, Abdul-Qadir Gilani, Ibn al-Jawzi, Ibn Qudamah, Ibn Hamdan, Ibn Taymiyyah, Abdullah Ansari, Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah, Ibn Rajab, Ibn Muflih, Mar'i al-Karmi, Sulayman ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab, Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, Asad al Hanbali, Badr al Deen al Hanbali

Ahmad ibn Hanbal al-Dhuhli (Arabic: أَحْمَد بْن حَنْبَل الذهلي, romanized: Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal al-Dhuhlī; November 780 – 2 August 855 CE/164–241 AH),[5] was a Muslim jurist, theologian, ascetic, hadith traditionist, and founder of the Hanbali school of Sunni jurisprudence — one of the four major orthodox legal schools of Sunni Islam.[6]

A highly influential and active scholar during his lifetime,[6] Ibn Hanbal went on to become "one of the most venerated" intellectual figures in Islamic history,[7] who has had a "profound influence affecting almost every area of" the traditionalist perspective within Sunni Islam.[8] One of the foremost classical proponents of relying on scriptural sources as the basis for Sunni Islamic law and way of life, Ibn Hanbal compiled one of the most important Sunni hadith collections, the Musnad,[9] which has continued to exercise considerable influence in the field of hadith studies up to the present time.[6]

Having studied fiqh and hadith under many teachers during his youth,[10] Ibn Hanbal became famous in his later life for the crucial role he played in the Mihna, the inquisition instituted by the Abbasid Caliph al-Ma'mun towards the end of his reign, in which the ruler gave official state support to the Muʿtazilite dogma of the Quran being created, a view that contradicted the orthodox doctrine of the Quran being the eternal, uncreated Word of God.[6] Suffering physical persecution under the caliph for his unflinching adherence to the traditional doctrine, Ibn Hanbal's fortitude in this particular event only bolstered his "resounding reputation"[6] in the annals of Sunni history.

Throughout Sunni Islamic history, Ibn Hanbal was venerated as an exemplary figure in all the traditional schools of Sunni thought,[6] both by the exoteric ulema and by the mystics, with the latter often designating him as a saint in their hagiographies.[11] The fourteenth-century hadith master al-Dhahabi referred to Ibn Hanbal as "the true Shaykh of Islām and leader of the Muslims in his time, the ḥadīth master and Proof of the Religion."[12]

In the modern era, Ibn Hanbal's name has become controversial in certain quarters of the Islamic world, because the Hanbali reform movement known as Wahhabism has cited him as a principal influence along with the thirteenth-century Hanbali reformer Ibn Taymiyyah. However it has been argued by certain scholars that Ibn Hanbal's own beliefs actually played "no real part in the establishment of the central doctrines of Wahhabism,"[13] as there is evidence, according to the same authors, that "the older Hanbalite authorities had doctrinal concerns very different from those of the Wahhabis,"[13] rich as medieval Hanbali literature is in references to saints, grave visitation, miracles, and relics.[14] In this connection, scholars have cited Ibn Hanbal's own support for the use of relics as simply one of several important points upon which the theologian's opinions diverged from those of Wahhabism.[15] Other scholars maintain that Ahmād Ibn Hānbal was "the distant progenitor of Wahhābism" who also immensely inspired the conservative reform movement of Salafiyya.[16]

  1. ^ a b "مناهج أئمة الجرح والتعديل". Ibnamin.com. Archived from the original on 2019-01-07. Retrieved 2010-03-21.
  2. ^ Cite error: The named reference jackson was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  3. ^ The History of Persia by John Malcolm – Page 245
  4. ^ a b c A Literary History of Persia from the Earliest Times Until Firdawsh by Edward Granville Browne – Page 295
  5. ^ Abū ʿAbdillāh Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn Ḥanbal al-Thuhli (Arabic: أَبُو عَبْدِ ٱلله أَحْمَد بْن مُحَمَّد بْن حَنْبَل الذهلي)
  6. ^ a b c d e f H. Laoust, "Ahmad b. Hanbal," in Encyclopedia of Islam, Vol. I, pp. 272-7
  7. ^ Mohammed M. I. Ghaly, "Writings on Disability in Islam: The 16th Century Polemic on Ibn Fahd's "al-Nukat al-Ziraf"," The Arab Studies Journal, Vol. 13/14, No. 2/1 (Fall 2005/Spring 2006), p. 26, note 98
  8. ^ Holtzman, Livnat, “Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE, Edited by: Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas, Everett Rowson.
  9. ^ 1st ed., Cairo 1311; new edition by Aḥmad S̲h̲ākir in publ. since 1368/1948
  10. ^ Manāḳib, pp. 33-6; Tard̲j̲ama, pp. 13-24
  11. ^ Christopher Melchert, The Ḥanābila and the Early Sufis, Arabica, T. 48, Fasc. 3 (Brill, 2001), p. 356
  12. ^ Gibril F. Haddad, The Four Imams and Their Schools (London: Muslim Academic Trust, 2007), p. 301
  13. ^ a b Michael Cook, “On the Origins of Wahhābism,” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Third Series, Vol. 2, No. 2 (Jul., 1992), p. 198
  14. ^ Christopher Melchert, The Ḥanābila and the Early Sufis, Arabica, T. 48, Fasc. 3 (Brill, 2001); cf. Ibn al-Jawzī, Manāqib al-imām Aḥmad, ed. ʿĀdil Nuwayhiḍ, Beirut 1393/1973
  15. ^ Gibril F. Haddad, The Four Imams and Their Schools (London: Muslim Academic Trust, 2007), p. 390
  16. ^ Bearman, Bianquis, Bosworth, van Donzel, Heinrichs, P. , Th. , C.E. , E. , W.P. (1960). "Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal". In Laoust, Henri (ed.). Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Brill. ISBN 9789004161214. Archived from the original on 2021-11-05. Retrieved 2021-11-05. Founder of one of the four major Sunnī schools, the Ḥanbalī, he was, through his disciple Ibn Taymiyya [q.v.], the distant progenitor of Wahhābism, and has inspired also in a certain degree the conservative reform movement of the Salafiyya.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)

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