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Malik ibn Anas information


Imam
Malik ibn Anas
مَالِك بْن أَنَس
Title
  • Shaykh al-Islam
  • Proof of the Community
  • Imam of Medina
  • Imam of the Believers in Hadith
  • Imam of the Abode of Emigration
  • Knowledgeable Scholar of Medina
Personal
Born711 CE (93 AH)
Medina, Hejaz, Umayyad Caliphate (present-day Saudi Arabia)
Died795 CE (179 AH; aged 83–84)
Medina, Hejaz, Abbasid Caliphate (present-day Saudi Arabia)
Resting placeAl-Baqi Cemetery, Medina, Hejaz, Saudi Arabia
ReligionIslam
EraLate Umayyad – early Abbasid
RegionHejaz, Arabia
DenominationSunni
JurisprudenceIndependent (eponym of the Maliki school)
Main interest(s)
  • Jurisprudence
  • Hadith
  • Theology
Notable idea(s)Maliki school
Notable work(s)
  • Al-Muwatta'
  • Al-Mudawwana
Muslim leader
Influenced by
    • Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin[1]
    • Ja'far al-Sadiq
    • al-Nafi' al-Madani
    • Hisham ibn Urwa
    • Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri
Influenced
  • Virtually all subsequent Sunni Muslims

Malik ibn Anas[a] (Arabic: مَالِك بْن أَنَس, romanized: Mālik ibn Anas; 711–795 CE) was a Sunni Muslim scholar, jurist, traditionist, and theologian.[2] Born in Medina, Malik rose to become the premier scholar of hadith in his day,[2] seeking to apply to "the whole legal life" to create a systematic method of Islamic jurisprudence that would only further expand over time.[2] Referred to as the Imam of Medina by his contemporaries, his views in matters of jurisprudence became highly cherished both in his own life and afterward, becoming the eponym of the Maliki school, one of the four major schools of Islamic jurisprudence.[2] His school became the normative rite for Sunni practice in much of North Africa, al-Andalus (until the expulsion of medieval native Iberian Muslims), a vast portion of Egypt, some parts of Syria, Yemen, Sudan, Iraq, and Khorasan,[3] and the prominent orders in Sufism, the Shadili and Tijani.[4]

Perhaps Malik's most famous accomplishment in the annals of Islamic history is, however, his compilation of al-Muwatta', one of the oldest and most revered Sunni hadith collections and one of "the earliest surviving Muslim law-book[s],"[2] in which Malik attempted to "give a survey of law and justice; ritual and practice of religion according to the consensus of Islam in Medina, according to the sunna usual in Medina; and to create a theoretical standard for matters which were not settled from the point of view of consensus and sunna."[2] Composed in the early days of the Abbasid caliphate, during which time there was a burgeoning "recognition and appreciation of the canon law" of the ruling party, Malik's work aimed to trace out a "smoothed path" (which is what al-muwaṭṭaʾ literally means) through "the farreaching differences of opinion even on the most elementary questions."[2] Hailed as "the soundest book on earth after the Quran" by al-Shafi'i,[3] the compilation of al-Muwatta' led to Malik being bestowed with such reverential epithets as Shaykh al-Islam, Proof of the Community, Imam of the Believers in Hadith, Imam of the Abode of Emigration, and Knowledgeable Scholar of Medina in later Sunni tradition.[3][5]

According to classical Sunni tradition, the Islamic prophet Muhammad foretold the birth of Malik, saying: "Very soon will people beat the flanks of camels in search of knowledge and they shall find no one more expert than the knowledgeable scholar of Medina,"[6] and, in another tradition, "The people ... shall set forth from East and West without finding a sage other than the sage of the people in Medina."[7] While some later scholars, such as Ibn Hazm and al-Tahawi, did cast doubt on identifying the mysterious wise man of both these traditions with Malik,[8] the most widespread interpretation nevertheless continued to be that which held the personage to be Malik.[8] Throughout Islamic history, Malik has been venerated as an exemplary figure in all the traditional schools of Sunni thought, both by the exoteric ulema and by the mystics, with the latter often designating him as a saint in their hagiographies.[9][10] Malik's most notable student, ash-Shafi'i (who would himself become the founder of another of the four orthodox legal schools of Sunni law), later said of his teacher: "No one constitutes as great a favor to me in the religion of God as Malik ... when the scholars of knowledge are mentioned, Malik is the star."[11]

  1. ^ Adil Salahi (2001), Scholar Of Renown: Imam Ali Zain Al-Abideen, Arab News, In his scholarship, Ali Zain Al-Abideen was a man of high achievement. Imam Malik describes him as "a sea full of knowledge". All six books of Hadith include traditions reported by him, which suggest that he was considered by all the main scholars as a highly reliable reporter of Hadith. His line of reporting was mainly through his father and grandfather, but he also reported Hadith through the main scholars of the tabieen generation and the Prophet's companions.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Schacht, J., "Mālik b. Anas", in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Brill Online.
  3. ^ a b c Haddad, Gibril F. (2007). The Four Imams and Their Schools. London, the U.K.: Muslim Academic Trust. p. 121.
  4. ^ See "Shadiliyya" and "Tijaniyyah" in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Brill Online.
  5. ^ "Imam Malik; The leader of the Believers in Hadith". hadithanswers.com. HadithAnswers. Retrieved Jan 21, 2024.
  6. ^ "Narrated by Abu Hurayrah by Ahmad, al-Tirmidhi who said it is hasan -- in some manuscripts hasan sahih -- al-Hakim (1:90-91) with three chains, declaring it sahih by Muslim's criterion, al-Bayhaqi in al-Sunan al-Kubra (1:386), etc." (Gibril F. Haddad, The Four Imams and Their Schools [London: Muslim Academic Trust, 2007], p. 121, note 271).
  7. ^ Gibril F. Haddad, The Four Imams and Their Schools (London: Muslim Academic Trust, 2007), p. 122
  8. ^ a b Gibril F. Haddad, The Four Imams and Their Schools (London: Muslim Academic Trust, 2007), pp. 122-23
  9. ^ Gibril F. Haddad, The Four Imams and Their Schools (London: Muslim Academic Trust, 2007), pp. 179-81
  10. ^ John Renard (tr.), Knowledge of God in Classical Sufism (New York: Paulist Press, 2004), p. 131, et passim.
  11. ^ Gibril F. Haddad, The Four Imams and Their Schools (London: Muslim Academic Trust, 2007), p. 158


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