20 Dhu al-Qi'dah 728 AH, or September 26, 1328 (aged 64–65)
Damascus, Mamluk Sultanate (modern-day Syria)
Late High Middle Ages or Crisis of the Late Middle Ages
Madrasa Dar al-Hadith as-Sukariya
Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Ibn Hazm, Abdul Qadir Gilani, Ibn Qudamah, Ibn Karram, Muqatil ibn Sulayman, Abdullah Ansari, al-Barbahari, Abd al-Ghani al-Maqdisi, Ibn Rushd
Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, Ibn Rajab, Ibn Muflih, al-Dhahabi, Ibn Kathir, Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, Sayyid Qutb, Yusuf al-Qaradawi, Abul A'la Maududi, Late Hadith Scholars, Late Hanbali School, Ahl-i Hadith, Salafi movement
Ibn Abd al-Halim ibn Abd as-Salam ibn Abd Allah ibn al-Khidr ibn Muhammad ibn al-Khidr ibn Ibrahim ibn Ali ibn Abd Allah (بن عبد الحليم بن عبد السلام بن عبد الله بن الخضر بن محمد بن الخضر بن إبراهيم بن علي بن عبد الله)
Abu al-Abbas (أبو العباس)
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Ibn Taymiyyah (January 22, 1263 – September 26, 1328; Arabic: ابن تيمية), birth name Taqī ad-Dīn ʾAḥmad ibn ʿAbd al-Ḥalīm ibn ʿAbd al-Salām al-Numayrī al-Ḥarrānī (Arabic: تقي الدين أحمد بن عبد الحليم بن عبد السلام النميري الحراني), was a controversial Sunni Muslim ʿālim, muhaddith, judge, Traditionalist theologian, ascetic, and iconoclastic theorist. He is known for his diplomatic involvement with the Ilkhanid ruler Ghazan Khan and for his involvement at the Battle of Marj al-Saffar which ended the Mongol invasions of the Levant. A legal authority within the Hanbali school, Ibn Taymiyyah's condemnation of numerous folk practices associated with saint veneration, perceived worship of tomb-shrines and alleged anthropomorphism made him a contentious figure with rulers of the time, and he was imprisoned several times as a result.
A polarizing figure in his own times and in the centuries that followed, Ibn Taymiyyah has emerged as one of the most influential medieval writers in late modern Sunni Islam. He was also noteworthy for engaging in intense religious polemics in attacking the followers of Kalām (speculative theology); namely Ash'arism, while defending his version of the Athari-traditionalist school of theology which he believed all Sunni Muslims should follow. This prompted rival clerics and state authorities to accuse Ibn Taymiyyah and his disciples of tashbīh (anthropomorphism); which eventually led to the censoring of his works and subsequent incarceration. Nevertheless, Ibn Taymiyyah's numerous treatises advocated for a Traditionalist theology grounded in his attempted reconciliation of reason and revelation have made him a popular classical reference for later reformist and modernist movements, as well as some kalām rational theologians.
Within recent history, Ibn Taymiyyah has often been cited as a considerable influence in the development of the Salafi movement, both for jihadist and political quietist iterations of the movement. Major aspects of his teachings such as upholding the pristine monotheism of the early Muslim generations and campaigns to uproot what he regarded as shirk (idolatry); had a profound influence on Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, the founder of the Wahhabist reform movement formed in Saudi Arabia, and on other later Sunni scholars. Syrian Salafi theologian Muhammad Rashid Rida (d. 1935 C.E/ 1354 A.H), one of the major modern proponents of his works, designated Ibn Taymiyyah as the Mujaddid (renewer) of the Islamic 7th century of Hijri year. Ibn Taymiyyah's doctrinal positions, such as his Takfir (declaration of unbelief) of the Mongol Ilkhanates, allowing jihad against other self-professed Muslims, were referenced by Islamic social movements such as the Muslim Brotherhood to justify social uprisings against contemporary governments across the Muslim world.
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^Rapoport, Yossef; Ahmed, Shahab (January 1, 2010). Ibn Taymiyya and His Times. Oxford University Press. p. 334. ISBN 9780195478341.
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^ abGhobadzdeh, Naser; Akbarzadeh, Shahram (May 18, 2015). "Sectarianism and the prevalence of 'othering' in Islamic thought". Third World Quarterly. 36 (4): 691–704. doi:10.1080/01436597.2015.1024433. S2CID 145364873. Retrieved June 6, 2020. Yet Ibn Taymiyyah remained unconvinced and issued three controversial fatwas to justify revolt against mongol rule.
^Nadvi, Syed Suleiman (2012). "Muslims and Greek Schools of Philosophy". Islamic Studies. 51 (2): 218. JSTOR 23643961. All his works are full of condemnation of philosophy and yet he was a great philosopher himself.
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^Yossef Rapoport and Shahab Ahmed, Introduction in Ibn Taymiyya and His Times, eds. Yossef Rapoport and Shahab Ahmed (Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2010), 6
^Islamic Philosophy from the 12th till the 14th Century, ed. Stephan Conermann and Abdelkader Al Ghouz (Bonn: Bonn University Press by V&R unipress).
Chapter: Jon Hoover Ibn Taymiyya’s Use of Ibn Rushd to Refute the Incorporealism of Fakhradin Al Razi
^ abEl-Tobgui, Carl Sharif (2022). Ibn Taymiyyah on reason and revelation : a study of Darʾ ta'āruḍ al-ʻaql wa-l-naql. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-51101-9. OCLC 1296947160.
^ abHaynes, Jeffrey; S. Sheikh, Naveed (2022). "Making Sense of Salafism: Theological foundations, ideological iterations and political manifestations". The Routledge handbook of Religion, Politics and Ideology. New York, USA: Routledge: Taylor & Francis Group. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-367-41782-6.
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^Cite error: The named reference Kepel, Gilles 2003 p.194 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
^Kepel, Gilles (2003). Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam. ISBN 9781845112578. Archived from the original on July 1, 2020. Retrieved August 12, 2015.
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^The Legal Thought of Jalāl Al-Din Al-Suyūṭī: Authority and Legacy, Page 133 Rebecca Skreslet Hernandez
^Haynes, Jeffrey; S. Sheikh, Naveed (2022). "Making Sense of Salafism: Theological foundations, ideological iterations and political manifestations". The Routledge handbook of Religion, Politics and Ideology. New York, USA: Routledge: Taylor & Francis Group. p. 182. ISBN 978-0-367-41782-6.
^Esposito, John L. (2003). The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 130. ISBN 0-19-512558-4. Ibn Taymiyyah, Taqi al-Din Ahmad (d. 1328)... Tied Islam to politics and state formation... Issued fatwas against the Mongols as unbelievers at heart despite public claims to be Muslim... His authority has been used by some twentieth-century Islamist groups to declare jihad against ruling governments.
^Springer, Devin (January 6, 2009). Islamic Radicalism and Global Jihad. Georgetown University Press. p. 29. ISBN 978-1589015784. Archived from the original on July 1, 2020. Retrieved December 3, 2016.
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