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Ibn Taymiyyah information


Ibn Taymiyyah
ابن تيمية
تخطيط كلمة ابن تيمية.png
Ibn Taymiyyah rendered in Islamic calligraphy.
TitleShaykh al-Islām
Personal
Born10 Rabi' al-awwal 661 AH, or
January 22, 1263, CE
Harran, Sultanate of Rum
(modern-day Harran, Şanlıurfa, Turkey)
Died20 Dhu al-Qi'dah 728 AH, or
September 26, 1328 (aged 64–65)
Damascus, Mamluk Sultanate
(modern-day Syria)
ReligionIslam
EraLate High Middle Ages or Crisis of the Late Middle Ages
DenominationSunni
JurisprudenceHanbali[7][8]
CreedAthari[1][2][3][4][5][6]
Alma materMadrasa Dar al-Hadith as-Sukariya
Muslim leader
Influenced by
  • Muhammad ibn Karram,[9] Al-Hasan ibn 'Ali al-Barbahari, Abdul Qadir Gilani, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Malik ibn Anas
Influenced
  • Late Hadith Scholars, Late Hanbali School, Ahl-i Hadith and Salafiyya movements
Arabic name
Personal (Ism)Ahmad
(أحمد)
Patronymic (Nasab)Ibn Abd al-Halim ibn Abd as-Salam ibn Abd Allah ibn al-Khidr ibn Muhammad ibn al-Khidr ibn Ibrahim ibn Ali ibn Abd Allah
(بن عبد الحليم بن عبد السلام بن عبد الله بن الخضر بن محمد بن الخضر بن إبراهيم بن علي بن عبد الله)
Teknonymic (Kunya)Abu al-Abbas
(أبو العباس)
Toponymic (Nisba)al-Harrani[10]
(الحراني)

Ibn Taymiyyah (January 22, 1263 – September 26, 1328; Arabic: ابن تيمية), birth name Taqī ad-Dīn ʾAḥmad ibn ʿAbd al-Ḥalīm ibn ʿAbd al-Salām al-Numayrī al-Ḥarrānī (Arabic: تقي الدين أحمد بن عبد الحليم بن عبد السلام النميري الحراني),[11][12] was a Sunni ʿĀlim,[13][14][15] muhaddith, judge,[16][17] proto-Salafist theologian,[18][19][20][21] and sometimes controversial thinker and political figure.[22][15] He is known for his diplomatic involvement with the Ilkhanid ruler Ghazan Khan and for his involvement at the Battle of Marj al-Saffar which ended the Mongol invasions of the Levant.[23] A member of the Hanbali school, Ibn Taymiyyah's iconoclastic views that condemned numerous folk practices associated with saint veneration and the visitation of tomb-shrines; made him unpopular with many scholars and rulers of the time, and he was imprisoned several times.[24]

A polarising figure in his own times and in the centuries that followed,[25][26] Ibn Taymiyyah has emerged as one of the most influential medieval writers in contemporary Sunni Islam.[24] He was also noteworthy for engaging in intense religious polemics that defended Athari school against the followers of rival schools of Kalam (speculative theology); namely Ash'arism and Maturidism. This would prompt numerous clerics and state authorities to accuse Ibn Taymiyyah and his disciples of being guilty of "tashbīh" (anthropomorphism); which eventually led to the censoring of his works and subsequent incarceration.[27][28][29] Nevertheless, Ibn Taymiyya's numerous treatises that advocated "creedal Salafism" (al-salafiyya al-iʿtiqādīyya), based on his particular interpretations of the Qur'an and the Sunnah, constitute the most popular classical reference for later Salafi movements.[30]

Ibn Taymiyya's rejection of some aspects of classical Islamic tradition are believed to have had considerable influence on contemporary militant Islamist movements such as Salafi-Jihadism.[31][32][33] Major aspects of his teachings such as upholding the pristine monotheism of the early Muslim generations and campaigns to uproot what he regarded as shirk (idolatry); had a profound influence on Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, the founder of the Hanbali reform movement practiced in Saudi Arabia, and on other later Sunni scholars.[8][34] Syrian Salafi theologian Muhammad Rashid Rida (d. 1935 C.E/ 1354 A.H), one of the major modern proponents of his works, designated Ibn Taymiyya as the Mujaddid (renewer) of the Islamic 7th century of Hijri year.[35][36] Ibn Taymiyyah's doctrinal positions on the necessity of an Islamic political entity and his controversial fatwas, such as his Takfir (declaration of unbelief) of the Mongol Ilkhanates, allowing jihad against other self-professed Muslims, are referenced by al-Qaeda and other jihadist groups to justify militant overthrowal of contemporary governments of the Muslim world.[37][38][39]

  1. ^ Halverson, Jeffry R. (2010). Theology and Creed wahabi Islam. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-230-10279-8.
  2. ^ Spevack, Aaron (2014). The Archetypal Scholar: Law, Theology, and Mysticism in the Synthesis of Al-Bajuri. State University of New York Press. p. 45. ISBN 978-1-4384-5370-5.
  3. ^ Makdisi, ', American Journal of Arabic Studies 1, part 1 (1973), pp. 118–28
  4. ^ Spevack, Aaron (2014). The Archetypal Sunni: Law, Theology, and Mysticism in the Synthesis of Al-Bajuri. State University of New York Press. p. 91. ISBN 978-1438453712.
  5. ^ Rapoport, Yossef; Ahmed, Shahab (January 1, 2010). Ibn Taymiyya and His Times. Oxford University Press. p. 334. ISBN 9780195478341.
  6. ^ Halverson, Jeffry R. (2010). Theology and Creed in Wahabi Islam: The Muslim Brotherhood, Ash'arism, and Political Wahabism. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 48–49. ISBN 978-0230102798.
  7. ^ Ibn Taymiyyah, Ahmad ibn ʻAbd al-Ḥalīm (1999). Kitab Al-Iman. Kuala Lumpur: Islamic Book Trust. ISBN 978-967-5062-28-5. Retrieved January 16, 2015.
  8. ^ a b "Ibn Taymiyyah". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on February 13, 2015. Retrieved January 16, 2015.
  9. ^ Zysow, Aron (October 15, 2011). "KARRĀMIYA". Iranica. Vol. 15. Encyclopædia Iranica Foundation. pp. 590–601. Retrieved October 1, 2020. Among later Muslim thinkers Ebn Taymiya (d. 728/1328) stands out as a sympathetic, if critical, student of Karrāmi theology, and he took it upon himself to write an extensive commentary on Faḵr-al-Din Rāzi’s anti-Karrāmi work Asās al-taqdis, in which he defended the traditionist and Karrāmi positions on the key points of dispute.
  10. ^ Haque, Serajul (1982). Imam Ibn Taimiya and his projects of reform. Islamic Foundation Bangladesh.
  11. ^ Ibn Taymiyya and his Times, Oxford University Press, Pakistan. "Ibn Taymiyya and his Times: Yossef Rapoport – Oxford University Press". Archived from the original on October 11, 2015. Retrieved December 11, 2016.
  12. ^ Ibn Taymiyyah, Taqi al-Din Ahmad, The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780195125580.001.0001/acref-9780195125580-e-959 Archived December 20, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ Cite error: The named reference :33 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  14. ^ Woodward, Mark. The Garebeg Malud: Veneration of the Prophet as Imperial Ritual. p. 170.
  15. ^ a b Ghobadzdeh, Naser; Akbarzadeh, Shahram (May 18, 2015). "Sectarianism and the prevalence of 'othering' in Islamic thought". Third World Quarterly. 36 (4): 691–704. doi:10.1080/01436597.2015.1024433. S2CID 145364873. Retrieved June 6, 2020. Yet Ibn Taymiyyah remained unconvinced and issued three controversial fatwas to justify revolt against mongol rule.
  16. ^ Nadvi, Syed Suleiman (2012). "Muslims and Greek Schools of Philosophy". Islamic Studies. 51 (2): 218. JSTOR 23643961. All his works are full of condemnation of philosophy and yet he was a great philosopher himself.
  17. ^ Kokoschka, Alina (2013). Islamic Theology, Philosophy and Law: Debating Ibn Taymiyya and Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya. De Gruyter. p. 218. Identifying him, especially in regards to his comprehensive view, as a true philosopher, they describe him as an equal to or even superseding the most famous medieval Muslim philosophers.
  18. ^ James Fromherz, Samin, Allen, Nadav (2021). Social, Economic and Political Studies of the Middle East and Asia. Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. p. 182. ISBN 978-90-04-43952-8.
  19. ^ Abraham Medoff, Louis (2007). Ijtihad and Renewal in Qurʼanic Hermeneutics. Berkeley, California, USA: University of California. p. 33.
  20. ^ Marie Wainscott, Ann (2017). Bureaucratizing Islam: Morocco and the War on Terror. Liberty Plaza, New York, USA: Cambridge University Press. p. 85. ISBN 978-1-316-51049-0.
  21. ^ Haynes, Jeffrey; S. Sheikh, Naveed (2022). "Making Sense of Salafism: Theological foundations, ideological iterations and political manifestations". The Routledge handbook of Religion, Politics and Ideology. New York, USA: Routledge: Taylor & Francis Group. p. 179. ISBN 978-0-367-41782-6.
  22. ^ Nettler, R. and Kéchichian, J.A., 2009. Ibn Taymīyah, Taqī al-Dīn Aḥmad. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World, 2, pp.502–4.
  23. ^ Kadri, Sadakat (2012). Heaven on Earth: A Journey Through Shari'a Law from the Deserts of Ancient Arabia ... macmillan. p. 187. ISBN 978-0-09-952327-7. Archived from the original on July 1, 2020. Retrieved September 17, 2015.
  24. ^ a b Laoust, H., "Ibn Taymiyya", in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Consulted online on December 13, 2016 <https://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1573-3912_islam_SIM_3388 Archived July 1, 2020, at the Wayback Machine>
  25. ^ Tim Winter The Cambridge Companion to Classical Islamic Theology Cambridge University Press, May 22, 2008 ISBN 978-0-521-78058-2 p. 84
  26. ^ Yossef Rapoport and Shahab Ahmed, Introduction in Ibn Taymiyya and His Times, eds. Yossef Rapoport and Shahab Ahmed (Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2010), 6
  27. ^ Haynes, Jeffrey; S. Sheikh, Naveed (2022). "Making Sense of Salafism: Theological foundations, ideological iterations and political manifestations". The Routledge handbook of Religion, Politics and Ideology. New York, USA: Routledge: Taylor & Francis Group. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-367-41782-6.
  28. ^ Sinani, Besnik (April 10, 2022). "Post-Salafism: Religious Revisionism in Contemporary Saudi Arabia". Religions. 13 (4): 344. doi:10.3390/rel13040340.
  29. ^ L. Nettler, Ronald (2009). "Ibn Taymīyah, Taqī al-Dīn Aḥmad". In L. Esposito, John (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acref/9780195305135.001.0001. ISBN 9780195305135. Archived from the original on November 1, 2022.
  30. ^ Haynes, Jeffrey; S. Sheikh, Naveed (2022). "Making Sense of Salafism: Theological foundations, ideological iterations and political manifestations". The Routledge Handbook of Religion, Politics and Ideology. New York, USA: Routledge: Taylor & Francis Group. p. 179. ISBN 978-0-367-41782-6.
  31. ^ Cite error: The named reference Kepel, Gilles 2003 p.194 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  32. ^ Kepel, Gilles (2003). Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam. ISBN 9781845112578. Archived from the original on July 1, 2020. Retrieved August 12, 2015.
  33. ^ Wiktorowicz, Quintan (2005). "A Genealogy of Radical Islam". Studies in Conflict & Terrorism. 28 (2): 75–97. doi:10.1080/10576100590905057. S2CID 55948737.
  34. ^ Haynes, Jeffrey; S. Sheikh, Naveed (2022). "Making Sense of Salafism: Theological foundations, ideological iterations and political manifestations". The Routledge handbook of Religion, Politics and Ideology. New York, USA: Routledge: Taylor & Francis Group. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-367-41782-6.
  35. ^ The Legal Thought of Jalāl Al-Din Al-Suyūṭī: Authority and Legacy, Page 133 Rebecca Skreslet Hernandez
  36. ^ Haynes, Jeffrey; S. Sheikh, Naveed (2022). "Making Sense of Salafism: Theological foundations, ideological iterations and political manifestations". The Routledge handbook of Religion, Politics and Ideology. New York, USA: Routledge: Taylor & Francis Group. p. 182. ISBN 978-0-367-41782-6.
  37. ^ L. Esposito, John (2003). The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 130. ISBN 0-19-512558-4. Ibn Taymiyyah, Taqi al-Din Ahmad (d. 1328)... Tied Islam to politics and state formation... Issued fatwas against the Mongols as unbelievers at heart despite public claims to be Muslim... His authority has been used by some twentieth-century Islamist groups to declare jihad against ruling governments.
  38. ^ Springer, Devin (January 6, 2009). Islamic Radicalism and Global Jihad. Georgetown University Press. p. 29. ISBN 978-1589015784. Archived from the original on July 1, 2020. Retrieved December 3, 2016.
  39. ^ Bassouni, Cherif (October 21, 2013). The Shari'a and Islamic Criminal Justice in Time of War and Peace. Cambridge University Press. p. 200. ISBN 9781107471153. Archived from the original on July 1, 2020. Retrieved December 4, 2016.

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Ibn Taymiyyah

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Ibn Taymiyyah (January 22, 1263 – September 26, 1328; Arabic: ابن تيمية), birth name Taqī ad-Dīn ʾAḥmad ibn ʿAbd al-Ḥalīm ibn ʿAbd al-Salām al-Numayrī...

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Wahhabi scholars. His methodology largely derives from his teacher Ibn Taymiyyah, and differs from that of other earlier renowned exegetes such as Tabari...

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the thirteenth-century Hanbali reformer Ibn Taymiyyah. However it has been argued by certain scholars that Ibn Hanbal's own beliefs actually played "no...

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Salafi movement

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with a "heavy reliance on hadith", looking up to Ibn Taymiyyah and his disciples like Ibn Kathir, Ibn Qayyim, etc. whom they regard as important classical...

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Takfir

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ISIL/ISIS/IS/Daesh, who have drawn on the ideas of the medieval Islamic scholars Ibn Taymiyyah and Ibn Kathir, and those of the modern Islamist ideologues Sayyid Qutb...

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Islamic extremism

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apart from both mainstream Sunnī and Shīʿa Muslims. Shīʿas believe ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib is the true successor to Muhammad, while Sunnīs consider Abu Bakr...

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Sunni Islam

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group-name for Sunnis is a relatively young phenomenon. It was probably Ibn Taymiyyah, who used the short-term for the first time. It was later popularized...

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Hanbali

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teachings, which cites Ahmad Ibn Hanbal as a principal influence along with the thirteenth-century Hanbali reformer Ahmad Ibn Taymiyyah. However, it has been...

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Athari

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founded their own madhhab) such as the Shafiʽite scholar Ibn Kathir, Hanbalite scholar Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn Hazm, Bukhari-independent school, and also scholars...

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Muqatil ibn Sulayman

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despite, according to Ibn Taymiyyah, people disagreeing with some of his other views. Ibn Abi al-Izz (d. 731), a follower of Ibn Taymiyyah, argued that al-Ash'ari's...

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Malik ibn Anas

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Academic Trust, 2007), p. 182 See Ibn Taymiyyah, Fatāwā, 27:166 and 28:26; Sulaymān ibn Abd Allāh ibn Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhāb, Taysīr al-'Azīz al-Hamīd...

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Wahhabism

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people of Najd. Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab and his followers were highly inspired by the influential thirteenth-century Hanbali scholar Ibn Taymiyyah (1263–1328 C...

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Azrael

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theology as antrophomorphist are falsely attributed, as Ibn Abi al-Izz (d. 731), a follower of Ibn Taymiyyah, argued that al-Ash'ari's material originated from...

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history of Islam include Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Ibn Taymiyyah, Shah Waliullah Dehlawi, Ahmad Sirhindi, Ashraf Ali Thanwi, Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, and Muhammad...

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upon the nature of God. Ibn Qudamah's attitude towards theology was challenged by certain later Hanbali thinkers like Ibn Taymiyyah (d. 1328), who broke...

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Hazimism

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base their beliefs on the teachings of theologians such as Ibn Taymiyyah and Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab. However, al-Hazimi asserted that the doctrines...

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Mohammad Akram Nadwi

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(Al-dar al-shamiyyah Beirut, Dar al-Qalam Damascus 1991) Shaykh al-islām ibn taymiyyah wa ta’thīrhi fī āsiya al-janūbiyah - Translated and edited by Mohammad...

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of hashishin, Arabic for "hashish-smokers." The 13th-century jurist Ibn Taymiyyah prohibited the use of hashish; he mentioned that it was introduced to...

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lone with Islamic teaching, which according to the Hanbali scholar Ibn Taymiyyah describes Sheikh Adi as a "sincere Muslim who followed the Sunnah of...

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beliefs, perceived as heretical. The medieval Sunnī Muslim scholar Ibn Taymiyyah also pointed out that the Alawites were not Shīʿītes. The Druze are...

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