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Sunni Islam information


Sunni Islam (/ˈsni, ˈsʊni/) is the largest branch of Islam, followed by 85–90% of the world's Muslims, and simultaneously the largest religious denomination in the world. Its name comes from the word Sunnah, referring to the tradition of Muhammad.[1][2] The differences between Sunni and Shia Muslims arose from a disagreement over the succession to Muhammad and subsequently acquired broader political significance, as well as theological and juridical dimensions.[3] According to Sunni traditions, Muhammad left no successor and the participants of the Saqifah event appointed Abu Bakr as the next-in-line (the first caliph).[3][4][5] This contrasts with the Shia view, which holds that Muhammad appointed his son-in-law and cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor.[6]

The adherents of Sunni Islam are referred to in Arabic as ahl as-sunnah wa l-jamāʻah ("the people of the Sunnah and the community") or ahl as-Sunnah for short. In English, its doctrines and practices are sometimes called Sunnism,[7] while adherents are known as Sunni Muslims, Sunnis, Sunnites and Ahlus Sunnah. Sunni Islam is sometimes referred to as "orthodox Islam",[8][9][10] though some scholars view this translation as inappropriate, and many Sunnis may find this offensive.[11]

The Quran, together with hadith (especially those collected in Kutub al-Sittah) and binding juristic consensus, form the basis of all traditional jurisprudence within Sunni Islam. Sharia rulings are derived from these basic sources, in conjunction with analogical reasoning, consideration of public welfare and juristic discretion, using the principles of jurisprudence developed by the traditional legal schools. In matters of creed, the Sunni tradition upholds the six pillars of imān (faith) and comprises the Ash'ari and Maturidi schools of Kalam (theology) as well as the textualist school known as traditionalist theology.

  1. ^ John L. Esposito, ed. (2014). "Sunni Islam". The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 28 October 2010.
  2. ^ Bialik, Carl (9 April 2008). "Muslims May Have Overtaken Catholics a While Ago". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 26 August 2021.
  3. ^ a b Tayeb El-Hibri, Maysam J. al Faruqi (2004). "Sunni Islam". In Philip Mattar (ed.). The Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa (Second ed.). MacMillan Reference.
  4. ^ Fitzpatrick, Coeli; Walker, Adam Hani (2014). Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God [2 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 3. ISBN 978-1610691789.
  5. ^ Madelung, Wilferd (1997). The Succession to Muhammad. Cambridge University Press. p. xi. ISBN 0521646960.
  6. ^ Jafri, Syed Husain Mohammad (27 August 1976). The Origins and Early Development of Shi'a Islam (Millennium (Series)) (The Millennium (Series).). Karachi, Pakistan: Oxford University Press (First Published By Longman Group Ltd and Librairie du Liban 1979). pp. 19–21. ISBN 978-0195793871. The Shi'a unequivocally take the word in the meaning of leader, master and patron and therefore the explicitly nominated successor of the Prophet. The Sunnis, on the other hand, interpret the word mawla in the meaning of a friend or the nearest kin and confidant.
  7. ^ "Sunnism". -Ologies & -Isms. The Gale Group. Retrieved 5 October 2016.
  8. ^ John Richard Thackrah (2013). Dictionary of Terrorism (2, revised ed.). Routledge. p. 252. ISBN 978-1135165956.
  9. ^ Nasir, Jamal J., ed. (2009). The Status of Women Under Islamic Law and Modern Islamic Legislation (revised ed.). Brill. p. 11. ISBN 978-9004172739.
  10. ^ George W. Braswell (2000). What You Need to Know about Islam & Muslims (illustrated ed.). B&H Publishing Group. p. 62. ISBN 978-0805418293.
  11. ^ An Introduction to the Hadith. John Burton. Published by Edinburgh University Press. 1996. p. 201. Cite: "Sunni: Of or pertaining sunna, especially the Sunna of the Prophet. Used in conscious opposition to Shi'a, Shi'í. There being no ecclesia or centralized magisterium, the translation 'orthodox' is inappropriate. To the Muslim 'unorthodox' implies heretical, mubtadi, from bid'a, the contrary of sunna and so 'innovation'."

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