Location within Europe
Location within Baltic Sea region
Location within Estonia
|First confirmed written record||1219|
|First possible appearance on map||1154|
|• Mayor||Mihhail Kõlvart|
|• Total||159.2 km2 (61.5 sq mi)|
|Elevation||9 m (30 ft)|
|• Rank||1st in Estonia|
|• Density||2,800/km2 (7,300/sq mi)|
|Resident registration (July 2022)|
|Time zone||UTC+2 (EET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+3 (EEST)|
|ISO 3166 code||EE-784|
|- Total||€14.7 billion|
|- Per capita||€33,564|
Tallinn (/ /,; Estonian: [ˈtɑlʲːinː] (listen)) is the most populous, primate, and capital city of Estonia. Situated on a bay in north Estonia, on the shore of the Gulf of Finland of the Baltic Sea, Tallinn has a population of 437,811 (as of 2022) and administratively lies in the Harju maakond (county). Tallinn is the main financial, industrial, and cultural centre of Estonia. It is located 187 km (116 mi) northwest of the country's second largest city Tartu, however only 80 km (50 mi) south of Helsinki, Finland, also 320 km (200 mi) west of Saint Petersburg, Russia, 300 km (190 mi) north of Riga, Latvia, and 380 km (240 mi) east of Stockholm, Sweden. From the 13th century until the first half of the 20th century, Tallinn was known in most of the world by variants of its other historical name Reval.
Tallinn received Lübeck city rights in 1248, however the earliest evidence of human population in the area dates back nearly 5,000 years. The first recorded claim over the place was laid by Denmark after a successful raid in 1219 led by King Valdemar II, followed by a period of alternating Scandinavian and Teutonic rulers. Due to the strategic location by the sea, its medieval port became a significant trade hub, especially in the 14–16th centuries, when Tallinn grew in importance as the northernmost member city of the Hanseatic League. Tallinn Old Town is one of the best-preserved medieval cities in Europe and is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Tallinn has the highest number of start-ups per person among European countries and is the birthplace of many international high-technology companies, including Skype, Bolt and Wise. The city is home to the headquarters of the European Union's IT agency, and to the NATO Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence. In 2007, Tallinn was listed among the top-10 digital cities in the world.
- "Population by sex, age and place of residence after the 2017 administrative reform, 1 January". Statistics Estonia. Retrieved 22 May 2022.
- "Tallinna elanike arv". Retrieved 22 May 2022.
- "Gross domestic product by county (ESA 2010)". Px-Web. Statistics Estonia.
- "Tal•linn". Dictionary.infoplease.com. Retrieved 20 May 2012.
- "Definition of Tallinn". Encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com. Retrieved 20 May 2012.
- Tallinn – TheFreeDictionary.com.
- ,"Tallinn on noorem, kui õpikus kirjas!". Delfi. 28 October 2003. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
- "Villu Kadakas: pringlikütid Vabaduse väljakul". 25 April 2009.
- "Historic Centre (Old Town) of Tallinn". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. 7 December 1997. Retrieved 29 September 2013.
- Rooney, Ben (14 June 2012). "The Many Reasons Estonia Is a Tech Start-Up Nation". The Wall Street Journal.
- Germany, SPIEGEL ONLINE, Hamburg (14 March 2015). "Start-ups in Tallinn: Estland, das Silicon Valley Europas? – SPIEGEL ONLINE – Netzwelt". Der Spiegel.
- Ingrid Teesalu (9 June 2011). "It's Official: Tallinn To Become EU's IT Headquarters". ERR. Retrieved 27 April 2012.
- "Tech capitals of the world". The Age. 15 May 2012. Retrieved 20 May 2012.