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Madhhab information


A madhhab (Arabic: مَذْهَب, romanized: madhhab, lit. 'way to act', IPA: [ˈmaðhab], pl. مَذَاهِب, madhāhib, [ˈmaðaːhib]) refers to any school of thought within Islamic jurisprudence. The major Sunni madhhab are Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i and Hanbali.[1] They emerged in the ninth and tenth centuries CE and by the twelfth century almost all jurists aligned themselves with a particular madhab.[2] These four schools recognize each other's validity and they have interacted in legal debate over the centuries.[2][1] Rulings of these schools are followed across the Muslim world without exclusive regional restrictions, but they each came to dominate in different parts of the world.[2][1] For example, the Maliki school is predominant in North and West Africa; the Hanafi school in South and Central Asia; the Shafi'i school in East Africa and Southeast Asia; and the Hanbali school in North and Central Arabia.[2][1][3] The first centuries of Islam also witnessed a number of short-lived Sunni madhhabs.[4] The Zahiri school, which is considered to be endangered, continues to exert influence over legal thought.[4][1][2] The development of Shia legal schools occurred along the lines of theological differences and resulted in the formation of the Ja'fari madhhab amongst Twelver Shias, as well as the Isma'ili and Zaidi madhhabs amongst Isma'ilis and Zaidis respectively, whose differences from Sunni legal schools are roughly of the same order as the differences among Sunni schools.[4][3] The Ibadi legal school, distinct from Sunni and Shia madhhabs, is predominant in Oman.[1] Unlike Sunnis, Shias, and Ibadis, non-denominational Muslims are not affiliated with any madhhab.[5][6][7]

The transformations of Islamic legal institutions in the modern era have had profound implications for the madhhab system. With the spread of codified state laws in the Muslim world, the influence of the madhhabs beyond personal ritual practice depends on the status accorded to them within the national legal system. State law codification commonly drew on rulings from multiple madhhabs, and legal professionals trained in modern law schools have largely replaced traditional ulama as interpreters of the resulting laws.[2] In the 20th century, some Islamic jurists began to assert their intellectual independence from traditional madhhabs.[8] With the spread of Salafi influence and reformist currents in the 20th century; a handful of Salafi scholars have asserted independence from being strictly bound by the traditional legal mechanisms of the four schools. Nevertheless, the majority of Sunni scholarship continues to uphold post-classical creedal belief in rigorously adhering (Taqlid) to one of the four schools in all legal details.[9]

The Amman Message, which was endorsed in 2005 by prominent Islamic scholars around the world, recognized four Sunni schools (Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i, Hanbali), two Shia schools (Ja'fari, Zaidi), the Ibadi school and the Zahiri school.[10] The Muslim schools of jurisprudence are located in Pakistan, Iran, Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Nigeria, Egypt, Turkey, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Russia, China, the Philippines, Algeria, Libya, Saudi Arabia and multiple other countries.

  1. ^ a b c d e f Rabb, Intisar A. (2009). "Fiqh". In John L. Esposito (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acref/9780195305135.001.0001. ISBN 9780195305135.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Hussin, Iza (2014). "Sunni Schools of Jurisprudence". In Emad El-Din Shahin (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acref:oiso/9780199739356.001.0001. ISBN 9780199739356.
  3. ^ a b Vikør, Knut S. (2014). "Sharīʿah". In Emad El-Din Shahin (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 3 September 2014.
  4. ^ a b c Calder, Norman (2009). "Law. Legal Thought and Jurisprudence". In John L. Esposito (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 21 November 2008.
  5. ^ Tan, Charlene (2014). Reforms in Islamic Education: International Perspectives. A&C Black. ISBN 9781441146175. This is due to the historical, sociological, cultural, rational and non-denominational (non-madhhabi) approaches to Islam employed at IAINs, STAINs, and UINs, as opposed to the theological, normative and denominational approaches that were common in Islamic educational institutions in the past
  6. ^ Rane, Halim, Jacqui Ewart, and John Martinkus. "Islam and the Muslim World." Media Framing of the Muslim World. Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2014. 15-28
  7. ^ Obydenkova, Anastassia V. "Religious pluralism in Russia." Politics of religion and nationalism: Federalism, consociationalism and secession, Routledge (2014): 36-49
  8. ^ Cite error: The named reference messick was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  9. ^ Auda, Jasser (2007). "5: Contemporary Theories in Islamic Law". Maqasid al-SharÏah as Philosophy of Islamic Law: A Systems Approach. 669, Herndon, VA 20172, USA: The International Institute of Islamic Thought. pp. 143–145. ISBN 978-1-56564-424-3.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location (link)
  10. ^ "Amman Message – The Official Site".

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Madhhab

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A madhhab (Arabic: مَذْهَب, romanized: madhhab, lit. 'way to act', IPA: [ˈmaðhab], pl. مَذَاهِب, madhāhib, [ˈmaðaːhib]) refers to any school of thought...

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Hanafi school

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Hanafi school or Hanafism (Arabic: ٱلْمَذْهَب ٱلْحَنَفِيّ, romanized: al-madhhab al-ḥanafī) is one of the four major schools of Islamic jurisprudence within...

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Maliki school

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Maliki school or Malikism (Arabic: ٱلْمَذْهَب ٱلْمَالِكِيّ, romanized: al-madhhab al-mālikī) is one of the four major schools of Islamic jurisprudence within...

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Wudu

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urination, defecation, flatulence, deep sleep, light bleeding (depending on madhhab), menstruation, postpartum status, and sexual intercourse. Wudu is often...

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Zahiri school

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Muslim world. Zahirism is characterized as a fifth school of thought (madhhab) within the Sunnī branch of Islam, and still retains a measure of influence...

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President of Iran

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fundamental principles of the Islamic Republic of Iran and the official madhhab of the country. Within these guidelines the Council vetoes candidates who...

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Makruh

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different madhhabs due to differing scholarly interpretations of the Quran and Hadith, with Hanafi scholars in particular differing from the other madhhabs in...

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Salah

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prayer. Minor details of performing salah may differ according to the madhhab (school of Islamic jurisprudence) of the person performing it. Salah may...

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Ghusl

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defecation, flatulence, deep sleep, and light bleeding (depending on the madhhab). Ghusl is a ritual bath.: 471  Ghusl becomes obligatory for seven causes...

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Ulama

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a caliph, and also the first known to host teachers of all four major madhhab known at that time. From the time of the Persian Ilkhanate (1260–1335 AD)...

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Islamic schools and branches

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Amr (2014). "Dāwūd al-Ẓāhirī and the Beginnings of the Ẓāhirī Madhhab". The Ẓāhirī Madhhab (3rd/9th-10th/16th Century): A Textualist Theory of Islamic Law...

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Ayatollah

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Usul al-Fiqh Fiqh Ijazah Ijma Ijtihad Ikhtilaf Istihlal Istihsan Istishab Madhhab Madrasah Maslaha Qiyas Taqlid Taqwa Urf Ahkam Fard Mustahabb Halal Mubah...

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Jariri school

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scholar in Baghdad. Although it eventually became extinct, al-Tabari's madhhab flourished among Sunni ulama for two centuries after his death. University...

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Haram

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are weighed according to the sincerity of the doer. Views of different madhhabs or legal schools of thought can vary significantly regarding what is or...

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Principles of Islamic jurisprudence

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al-Qaradawi). The main Sunni schools of law (madhhabs) are the Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i and Hanbali madhhabs. They grew out of differences of opinion and...

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Abdul Qadir Gilani

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Shafi'i jurisprudence (fiqh) on an equal footing with the Hanbali school (madhhab), and used to give fatwa according to both of them simultaneously. This...

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Ijtihad

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create particular Islamic schools of law (madhhabs). This consolidation of mujtahids into particular madhhabs prompted these groups to create their own...

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Halal

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Usul al-Fiqh Fiqh Ijazah Ijma Ijtihad Ikhtilaf Istihlal Istihsan Istishab Madhhab Madrasah Maslaha Qiyas Taqlid Taqwa Urf Ahkam Fard Mustahabb Halal Mubah...

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Djibouti

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with adherence to Islam; the Shafi'i school of Islam, the predominant madhhab in the Horn of Africa, requires circumcision of males and females. Education...

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Wahhabism

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individuals, including using a person's name to label an Islamic school (madhhab). Due to its perceived negative overtones, the members of the movement...

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Fatwa

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Qur'an and Hadith, rather than being restrained by the mechanism of the madhhabs (legal schools). Explaining Ibn Taymiyya's approach to issue fatwas, his...

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Islam

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propagating the integration of Twelverism into Sunni Islam as a fifth madhhab, called Ja'farism, which failed to gain recognition from the Ottomans....

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Sharia

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Christianity. The main Sunni schools of law (madhhabs) are the Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i and Hanbali madhhabs. They emerged in the ninth and tenth centuries...

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