25,000 civilians killed 500,000 Somali inhabitants of Ethiopia displaced
1964 border war
Ogaden War (1977–78)
1982 border war
War in Somalia (2006–09)
2022 al-Shabaab invasion of Ethiopia
Post–1960 conflicts in the Horn of Africa
Eritrean War of Independence
Eritrean civil wars
1961 revolt in Somalia
Ethiopian Civil War
Somali Civil War
Somaliland War of Independence
Djiboutian Civil War
Insurgency in Ogaden
Second Afar insurgency
Hanish Islands conflict
OEF – Horn of Africa
Ethiopian civil conflict
The Ogaden War, or the Ethio-Somali War (Somali: Dagaalkii Xoraynta Soomaali Galbeed, Amharic: የኢትዮጵያ ሶማሊያ ጦርነት, romanized: ye’ītiyop’iya somalīya t’orineti), was a military conflict fought between Somalia and Ethiopia from July 1977 to March 1978 over the Ethiopian region of Ogaden. Somalia's invasion of the region, precursor to the wider war, met with the Soviet Union's disapproval, leading the superpower to end its support of Somalia and support Ethiopia instead.
Ethiopia was saved from defeat and permanent loss of territory through a massive airlift of military supplies worth $1 billion, the arrival of more than 12,000 Cuban soldiers and airmen sent by Fidel Castro to win a second African victory (after his first success in Angola in 1975–76), and 1,500 Soviet advisors, led by General Vasily Petrov. On 23 January 1978, Cuban armored brigades inflicted the worst losses the Somali forces had ever taken in a single action since the start of the war.
The Cubans (equipped with 300 tanks, 156 artillery pieces and 46 combat aircraft) prevailed at Harar, Dire Dawa and Jijiga, and began to push the Somalis systematically out of the Ogaden. By 23 March 1978, the Cuban backed Ethiopian army had recaptured more than two-thirds of the Ogaden, marking the official end of the war. Almost a third of the regular SNA soldiers, three-eighths of the armored units and half of the Somali Air Force had been lost during the war. The war left Somalia with a disorganized and demoralized army as well as a heavy disapproval from its population. These conditions led to a revolt in the army which eventually spiraled into the ongoing Somali Civil War.
^"Ogaden Area recaptured by Ethiopian Forces with Soviet and Cuban Support -International Ramifications of Ethiopian-Somali Conflict – Incipient Soviet and Cuban Involvement in Ethiopian Warfare against Eritrean Secessionists -Political Assassinations inside Ethiopia". Keesing's Record of World Events (formerly Keesing's Contemporary Archives). 1 May 1978.
^Lefebvre, Jeffrey Alan. Arms for the horn : U.S. Security Policy in Ethiopia and Somalia. University of Pitsburg Press. p. 188.
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^"North Korea's Military Partners in the Horn". The Diplomat. Retrieved 6 January 2018.
^ abMekonnen, Teferi (2018). "The Nile issue and the Somali-Ethiopian wars (1960s–78)". Annales d'Éthiopie. 32: 271–291. doi:10.3406/ethio.2018.1657.
^ abTareke 2000, p. 656.
^ abFitzgerald, Nina J. (2002). Somalia; Issues, History, and Bibliography. Nova Publishers. p. 64. ISBN 9781590332658.
^Malovany, Pesach (21 July 2017). Wars of Modern Babylon. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 9780813169453.
^Ayele 2014, p. 106: "MOND classified documents reveal that the full-scale Somali invasion came on Tuesday, July 12, 1977. The date of the invasion was not, therefore, July 13 or July 23 as some authors have claimed."
^ abGebru Tareke (2000). "The Ethiopia-Somalia War of 1977 Revisited" (PDF). The International Journal of African Historical Studies. 33 (3): 635–667. doi:10.2307/3097438. JSTOR 3097438. S2CID 159829531. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 February 2020. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
^Lapidoth, Ruth (1982). The Read Sea and the Gulf of Aden. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 9024725011.
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^Gorman 1981, p. 208
^Tareke 2009, pp. 204–5.
^Tareke 2000, p. 638.
^Halliday & Molyneux 1982, p. 14.
^Gleijeses, Piero (2013). Visions of Freedom: Havana, Washington, Pretoria and the Struggle for Southern Africa, 1976–1991. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press. p. 45. ISBN 978-1-4696-0968-3.
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^Dixon, Jeffrey S.; Sarkees, Meredith Reid (22 October 2015). A Guide to Intra-state Wars. ISBN 9780872897755.
^ abTareke 2000, p. 640.
^"Genesis of the civil war in Somalia".
^ abcdefghijkTareke 2000, p. 665.
^ abcCite error: The named reference Urribarres was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
^ abcd"ТОТАЛЬНАЯ СОЦИАЛИСТИЧЕСКАЯ ВОЙНА. НЕДОКУМЕНТАЛЬНЫЕ ЗАПИСКИ: Война между Эфиопией и Сомали 1977-78 гг. Page 2". Archived from the original on 2019-05-09. Retrieved 2009-05-27.
^"ТОТАЛЬНАЯ СОЦИАЛИСТИЧЕСКАЯ ВОЙНА. НЕДОКУМЕНТАЛЬНЫЕ ЗАПИСКИ: Война между Эфиопией и Сомали 1977-78 гг". Archived from the original on 2019-05-09. Retrieved 2009-05-27.
^ abClodfelter 2017, p. 557.
^ abPollack, Kenneth Michael (2019). Armies of Sand: The Past, Present, and Future of Arab Military Effectiveness. Oxford University Press. pp. 90–91.
^http://gadaa.com/06142007002.pdf Archived 2016-12-26 at the Wayback Machine Evil Days: Thirty Years of War and Famine in Ethiopia
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^Tareke 2009, p. 186.
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