Global Information Lookup Global Information

Etruscan language information

The Cippus Perusinus, a stone tablet bearing 46 lines of incised Etruscan text, one of the longest extant Etruscan inscriptions. 3rd or 2nd century BC.
Native toAncient Etruria
RegionItalian Peninsula
Extinctafter 50 AD[1]
Language family
  • Etruscan
Writing system
Etruscan alphabet
Language codes
ISO 639-3ett

Etruscan (/ɪˈtrʌskən/ ih-TRUSK-ən)[3] was the language of the Etruscan civilization in the ancient region of Etruria,[a] in Etruria Padana[b] and Etruria Campana[c] in what is now Italy. Etruscan influenced Latin but was eventually completely superseded by it. The Etruscans left around 13,000 inscriptions that have been found so far, only a small minority of which are of significant length; some bilingual inscriptions with texts also in Latin, Greek, or Phoenician; and a few dozen purported loanwords. Attested from 700 BC to AD 50, the relation of Etruscan to other languages has been a source of long-running speculation and study, with it mostly being referred to as one of the Tyrsenian languages, at times as an isolate and a number of other less well-known theories.

The consensus among linguists and Etruscologists is that Etruscan was a Pre-Indo-European[4][5][6] and Paleo-European language,[7][8] closely related to the Raetic language that was spoken in the Alps,[9][10][11][12][13] and to the Lemnian language, attested in a few inscriptions on Lemnos.[14][15]

The Etruscan alphabet is similar to the Greek one. Therefore, linguists have been able to read the inscriptions in the sense of knowing roughly how they would have been pronounced, but have not yet understood their meaning.[16]

A comparison between the Etruscan and Greek alphabets reveals how accurately the Etruscans preserved the Greek alphabet. The Etruscan alphabet contains letters that have since been dropped from the Greek alphabet, such as the digamma, sampi and qoppa.[17]

Grammatically, the language is agglutinating, with nouns and verbs showing suffixed inflectional endings and some gradation of vowels. Nouns show five cases, singular and plural numbers, with a gender distinction between animate and inanimate in pronouns.

Etruscan appears to have had a cross-linguistically common phonological system, with four phonemic vowels and an apparent contrast between aspirated and unaspirated stops. The records of the language suggest that phonetic change took place over time, with the loss and then re-establishment of word-internal vowels, possibly due to the effect of Etruscan's word-initial stress.

Etruscan religion influenced that of the Romans, and many of the few surviving Etruscan-language artifacts are of votive or religious significance. Etruscan was written in an alphabet derived from the Greek alphabet; this alphabet was the source of the Latin alphabet, as well as other alphabets in Italy and probably beyond. The Etruscan language is also believed to be the source of certain important cultural words of Western Europe such as military and person, which do not have obvious Indo-European roots.

  1. ^ a b Rix, Helmut (2004). "Etruscan". In Woodard, Roger D. (ed.). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 943–966. ISBN 978-0-521-56256-0.
  2. ^ Freeman, Philip (1999). "The Survival of the Etruscan Language". Etruscan Studies. 6 (1): 75–84. doi:10.1515/etst.1999.6.1.75. S2CID 191436488.
  3. ^ Bauer, Laurie (2007). The Linguistics Student's Handbook. Edinburgh.
  4. ^ Massimo Pallottino, La langue étrusque Problèmes et perspectives, 1978.
  5. ^ Mauro Cristofani, Introduction to the study of the Etruscan, Leo S. Olschki, 1991.
  6. ^ Romolo A. Staccioli, The "mystery" of the Etruscan language, Newton & Compton publishers, Rome, 1977.
  7. ^ Haarmann, Harald (2014). "Ethnicity and Language in the Ancient Mediterranean". A Companion to Ethnicity in the Ancient Mediterranean. pp. 17–33. doi:10.1002/9781118834312.ch2. ISBN 978-1-4443-3734-1.
  8. ^ Harding, Anthony H. (2014). "The later prehistory of Central and Northern Europe". In Renfrew, Colin; Bahn, Paul (eds.). The Cambridge World Prehistory. Vol. 3. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 1912. ISBN 978-1-107-02379-6. Italy was home to a number of languages in the Iron Age, some of them clearly Indo-European (Latin being the most obvious, although this was merely the language spoken in the Roman heartland, that is, Latium, and other languages such as Italic, Venetic or Ligurian were also present), while the centre-west and northwest were occupied by the people we call Etruscans, who spoke a language which was non-Indo-European and presumed to represent an ethnic and linguistic stratum which goes far back in time, perhaps even to the occupants of Italy prior to the spread of farming.
  9. ^ Schumacher, Stefan (1994) Studi Etruschi in Neufunde ‘raetischer’ Inschriften Vol. 59 pp. 307–320 (German)
  10. ^ Schumacher, Stefan (1994) Neue ‘raetische’ Inschriften aus dem Vinschgau in Der Schlern Vol. 68 pp. 295-298 (German)
  11. ^ Schumacher, Stefan (1999) Die Raetischen Inschriften: Gegenwärtiger Forschungsstand, spezifische Probleme und Zukunfstaussichten in I Reti / Die Räter, Atti del simposio 23–25 settembre 1993, Castello di Stenico, Trento, Archeologia delle Alpi, a cura di G. Ciurletti – F. Marzatico Archaoalp pp. 334–369 (German)
  12. ^ Schumacher, Stefan (2004) Die Raetischen Inschriften. Geschichte und heutiger Stand der Forschung Archaeolingua. Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Kulturwissenschaft. (German)
  13. ^ Norbert Oettinger, Seevölker und Etrusker, 2010.
  14. ^ de Simone Carlo (2009) La nuova iscrizione tirsenica di Efestia in Aglaia Archontidou, Carlo de Simone, Albi Mersini (Eds.), Gli scavi di Efestia e la nuova iscrizione ‘tirsenica’, Tripodes 11, 2009, pp. 3–58. (Italian)
  15. ^ Carlo de Simone, Simona Marchesini (Eds), La lamina di Demlfeld [= Mediterranea. Quaderni annuali dell'Istituto di Studi sulle Civiltà italiche e del Mediterraneo antico del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche. Supplemento 8], Pisa – Roma: 2013. (Italian)
  16. ^ Rogers, Henry (2009). Writing systems: a linguistic approach. Blackwell textbooks in linguistics (Nachdr. ed.). Oxford: Blackwell Publ. ISBN 978-0-631-23464-7.
  17. ^ Rogers, Henry (2009). Writing systems: a linguistic approach. Blackwell textbooks in linguistics (Nachdr. ed.). Oxford: Blackwell Publ. ISBN 978-0-631-23464-7.

Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

and 27 Related for: Etruscan language information

Request time (Page generated in 0.8917 seconds.)

Etruscan language

Last Update:

Etruscan (/ɪˈtrʌskən/ ih-TRUSK-ən) was the language of the Etruscan civilization in the ancient region of Etruria, in Etruria Padana and Etruria Campana...

Word Count : 12203

Etruscan civilization

Last Update:

The Etruscan civilization (/ɪˈtrʌskən/ ih-TRUS-kən) was an ancient civilization created by the Etruscans, a people who inhabited Etruria in ancient Italy...

Word Count : 10709

Etruscan alphabet

Last Update:

The Etruscan alphabet was the alphabet used by the Etruscans, an ancient civilization of central and northern Italy, to write their language, from about...

Word Count : 983

Etruscan origins

Last Update:

several theses were elaborated on the origin of the Etruscans from the 5th century BC, when the Etruscan civilization had been already established for several...

Word Count : 10281

Lemnian language

Last Update:

used to write the Etruscan language in southern Etruria. A relationship between Lemnian, Raetic and Etruscan, as a Tyrsenian language family, has been...

Word Count : 2182

Etruscan religion

Last Update:

Etruscan religion comprises a set of stories, beliefs, and religious practices of the Etruscan civilization, heavily influenced by the mythology of ancient...

Word Count : 3155

List of Etruscan mythological figures

Last Update:

are given, reflecting differences in language in different localities and times. Many of the names are Etruscan spellings (and pronunciations) of Greek...

Word Count : 1213

Etruscan numerals

Last Update:

symbols. Etruscan numerals are the words and phrases for numbers of the Etruscan language, and the numerical digits used to write them. The Etruscan numerical...

Word Count : 1989

Tyrsenian languages

Last Update:

family of closely related ancient languages put forward by linguist Helmut Rix (1998), which consists of the Etruscan language of northern, central and south-western...

Word Count : 3555

Trojan language

Last Update:

a language related to Etruscan and Raetic, "could represent population movements departing from the Italian peninsula". Another proposed language is...

Word Count : 1696

Etruscan history

Last Update:

Etruscan history is the written record of Etruscan civilization compiled mainly by Greek and Roman authors. Apart from their inscriptions, from which information...

Word Count : 2140

Etruscan cities

Last Update:

Etruscan cities were a group of ancient settlements that shared a common Etruscan language and culture, even though they were independent city-states....

Word Count : 740


Last Update:

language Etruscan architecture Etruscan art Etruscan cities Etruscan coins Etruscan history Etruscan mythology Etruscan numerals Etruscan origins Etruscan society...

Word Count : 112

Etruscan society

Last Update:

Etruscan society is mainly known through the memorial and achievemental inscriptions on monuments of Etruscan civilization, especially tombs. This information...

Word Count : 2441


Last Update:

as being closely related to Etruscan. The ancient Rhaetic language is not to be confused with the modern Romance languages of the same Alpine region, known...

Word Count : 2070


Last Update:

Padanian Etruria Etruscan history Etruscan origins Etruscan cities Etruscan civilization Etruscan society Etruscan language Etruscan mythology Kingdom...

Word Count : 925

Italic languages

Last Update:

non-Indo-European one, Etruscan. It is generally believed that those 1st millennium Italic languages descend from Indo-European languages brought by migrants...

Word Count : 4209

List of English words of Etruscan origin

Last Update:

list of English words that may be of Etruscan origin, and were borrowed through Latin, often via French. The Etruscan origin of most of these words is disputed...

Word Count : 1492

Etruscan art

Last Update:

Etruscan art was produced by the Etruscan civilization in central Italy between the 10th and 1st centuries BC. From around 750 BC it was heavily influenced...

Word Count : 3881


Last Update:

an Etruscan-like language in a set of inscriptions on Lemnos island, in the Aegean Sea. Since the Etruscan language was a Pre-Indo-European language and...

Word Count : 7328


Last Update:

of the Greek alphabet, gamma (Γ), which was later adopted by the Etruscan language. Latin then borrowed this "rounded form" of gamma, C, to represent...

Word Count : 2688

Etruscan sculpture

Last Update:

Etruscan sculpture was one of the most important artistic expressions of the Etruscan people, who inhabited the regions of Northern Italy and Central...

Word Count : 6812

Eurasiatic languages

Last Update:

families, as proposed by Pagel et al., in addition to the language isolates Nivkh, Etruscan and Greenberg's "Korean–Japanese–Ainu". Some proposals group...

Word Count : 3358

Old Italic scripts

Last Update:

about 700 and 100 BC, for various languages spoken in that time and place. The most notable member is the Etruscan alphabet, which was the immediate ancestor...

Word Count : 1491


Last Update:

Apulu (Etruscan: 𐌖𐌋𐌖𐌐𐌀), also syncopated as Aplu (Etruscan: 𐌖𐌋𐌐𐌀), is an epithet of the Etruscan fire god Śuri as chthonic sky god, roughly equivalent...

Word Count : 844

Liber Linteus

Last Update:

longest Etruscan text, Tabula Capuana, also seems to be a ritual calendar.) Much of it is untranslated because of the lack of knowledge about the Etruscan language...

Word Count : 3573


Last Update:

and Greek names, and the Latin form is supposed to be derived from the Etruscan Uthuze (see below), which perhaps accounts for some of the phonetic innovations...

Word Count : 7072

PDF Search Engine ©