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Silesians information

Ślōnzŏki, Ślůnzoki (Silesian)
Flag of Silesians.svg
Flag of Upper Silesia
Total population
Several million (of which about 0.8 million officially declared Silesian nationality in national censuses in Poland, the Czech Republic and Slovakia).
Regions with significant populations
Silesians Germanyc. 2.4–3.6 million[1]
Silesians Poland2 million,[2] of which 847,000[3] officially declared Silesian nationality, most of them combined it with Polish nationality at the same time
Silesians Czech RepublicNo data, 31,301 declared Silesian nationality, of which 12, 451 declared it as their only nationality[4]
Silesians Slovakiano data; 22 declared Silesian nationality[5]
German (incl. Silesian German dialects)
Roman Catholicism
Protestantism (Mainly Lutheranism)
Related ethnic groups
Sorbs, Poles, Czechs, Germans
Silesians in the Opole and Silesian Voivodeships of Poland (2011 census)
Silesians in Czech Silesia (2021 census)
Woman in Silesian dress from Cieszyn Silesia, 1914
"Ślōnskŏ nacyjŏ bōła, je a bydzie", which means "Silesian Nation was, is, and will be" - Eighth Autonomy March, Katowice, 18 July 2009

Silesians (Silesian: Ślōnzŏki or Ślůnzoki, Silesian German: Schläsinger or Schläsier, German: Schlesier, Polish: Ślązacy, Czech: Slezané) is a geographical term[6] for the inhabitants of Silesia, a historical region in Central Europe divided by the current national boundaries of Poland, Germany and the Czech Republic. Historically, the region of Silesia (Lower and Upper) has been inhabited by Germans (German speakers), Czechs, Poles and Slavic Upper Silesians. Therefore, the term Silesian can refer to anyone of these ethnic groups. However, in 1945, great demographic changes occurred in the region as a result of the Potsdam Agreement leaving most of the region ethnically Polish and/or Slavic Upper Silesian.

There have been some debates on whether or not the Silesians (historically, Upper Silesians) constitute a distinct nation. In modern history, they have often been pressured to declare themselves to be German, Polish or Czech, and use the language of the nation which was in control of Silesia. Nevertheless, 847,000 people declared themselves to be of Silesian nationality in the 2011 Polish national census (including 376,000 who declared it to be their only nationality, 436,000 who declared to be their first nationality, 411,000 who declared to be their second one, and 431,000 who declared joint Silesian and Polish nationality),[3] making them the largest minority group. About 126,000 people declared themselves as members of the German minority (58,000 declared it jointly with Polish nationality), making it the third largest minority group in the country (93% of Germans living in Poland are in the Polish part of Silesia). 12,231 people declared themselves to be of Silesian nationality in the Czech national census of 2011[7] (44,446 in Czechoslovakia in 1991),[8] and 6,361 people declared joint Silesian and Moravian nationality in the Slovak national census.[9]

During the German occupation of Poland, Nazi authorities conducted a census in East Upper Silesia in 1940. At the time, 157,057 people declared Silesian nationality (Slonzaken Volk), and the Silesian language was declared by 288,445 people. However, the Silesian nationality could only be declared in the Cieszyn part of the region. Approximately 400–500,000 respondents from the other areas of East Upper Silesia who declared "Upper Silesian nationality" (Oberschlesier) were assigned to the German nationality category.[10] After World War II in Poland, the 1945 census showed a sizable group of people in Upper Silesia who declared Silesian nationality. According to police reports, 22% of people in Zabrze considered themselves to be Silesians, and that number was around 50% in Strzelce County.[11]

  1. ^ "Volkszählung vom 27. Mai 1970" Germany (West). Statistisches Bundesamt. Kohlhammer Verlag, 1972, OCLC Number: 760396
  2. ^ "The Institute for European Studies, Ethnological institute of UW" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-08-16.
  3. ^ a b Przynależność narodowo-etniczna ludności – wyniki spisu ludności i mieszkań 2011. GUS. Materiał na konferencję prasową w dniu 29. 01. 2013. p. 3. Retrieved 2013-03-06.
  4. ^ Tab. 614a Obyvatelstvo podle věku, národnosti a pohlaví - Český statistický úřad
  5. ^ "Bilancia podľa národnosti a pohlavia - SR-oblasť-kraj-okres, m-v [om7002rr]" (in Slovak). Statistics of Slovakia. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  6. ^ Dillingham, William Paul; Folkmar, Daniel; Folkmar, Elnora (1911). Dictionary of Races or Peoples. Washington, D.C.: Washington, Government Printing Office. p. 128.
  7. ^ "Obyvatelstvo podle národnosti podle krajů" (PDF). Czech Statistical Office. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-01-31.
  8. ^ "Národnost ve sčítání lidu v českých zemích" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-10-07. Retrieved 2012-08-16.
  9. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 6 April 2003. Retrieved 15 January 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  10. ^ "Górny Śląsk: szczególny przypadek kulturowy" (en: "Upper Silesia: special case of cultural") - Mirosława Błaszczak-Wacławik, Wojciech Błasiak, Tomasz Nawrocki, University of Warsaw 1990, p. 63
  11. ^ "Polityka antyniemiecka na Górnym Śląsku w latach 1945-1950" - Bernard Linek, Opole 2000, ISBN 978-83-7126-142-8

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Polish and/or Slavic Upper Silesian. There have been some debates on whether or not the Silesians (historically, Upper Silesians) constitute a distinct nation...

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Silesian independence

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supporting the Silesian independence in 20th century was Silesian People's Party, Association of Defense of Upper Silesians, Union of Upper Silesians. According...

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Silesians Together

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independent Silesian state in the event that this project is supported by the majority of Silesians. In the 2018 local elections Silesians Together formed...

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Silesian language

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of Slavic speaking Silesians became politicized. Some, like Óndra Łysohorsky, a poet and author in Czechoslovakia, saw the Silesians as being their own...

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Silesian Uprisings

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showed that in 1910, in most of the Upper Silesian districts east of the Oder river, Polish-speaking Silesians constituted a majority, forming more than...

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refers to an article, item, or person of or from Silesia. Silesian may also refer to: Silesians, inhabitants of Silesia, either a West Slavic (for example...

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Union of Upper Silesians

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for Upper Silesians". Organisers of the meeting were beaten, and the Poles described it as "propaganda". The political belief that Silesians should be...

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of both Polish Silesian and German Silesian dialects in that region. Modern Silesia is inhabited by Poles, Silesians, Germans, and Czechs. Germans first...

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Flags of German states

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Frequently, the flags are used in vertical variants. Flag of Silesians (with eagle) Flag of Silesians (Saxony) Flag of Sorbs (Saxony) Coats of arms of German...

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Silesian Voivodeship

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Silesian Voivodeship, or Silesia Province (Polish: województwo śląskie [vɔjɛˈvut͡stfɔ ˈɕlɔ̃skʲɛ]) is a voivodeship, or province, in southern Poland, centered...

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Polish language

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language-hood". Many linguistic sources categorize Silesian as a dialect of Polish. However, many Silesians consider themselves a separate ethnicity and have...

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dialects of Czech or Common Czech or a mixed form of both. Along with the Silesians of the Czech Republic, a part of the population to identify ethnically...

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West Slavs

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and Denmark: Lechitic group Poles Masovians Polans Lendians Vistulans Silesians Pomeranians Slovincians Polabians Obodrites/Abodrites Obotrites proper...

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Texas Silesian

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Texas Silesian (Silesian: Teksasko gwara) is a dialect of the Silesian language used by descendants of immigrant Upper-Silesians in American settlements...

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History of Silesia

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including Silesians who declared themselves Poles) property was confiscated without compensation. Large businesses owned by Polish-Silesians were confiscated...

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Silesian Wars

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The Silesian Wars (German: Schlesische Kriege) were three wars fought in the mid-18th century between Prussia (under King Frederick the Great) and Habsburg...

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Upper Silesia

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United States Immigration Commission in 1911 classified Polish-speaking Silesians as Poles. In 1919, after World War I, the eastern part of Prussian Upper...

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Silesian Autonomy Movement

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Silesia. RAŚ sees the Silesians as a "separate nation" rather than primarily as Poles, Germans or Czechs. On 17 October 2009, the Silesian Autonomy Movement...

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Silesian German

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Silesian (Silesian: Schläsisch, Schläs’sch, Schlä’sch, Schläsch, German: Schlesisch), Silesian German or Lower Silesian is a nearly extinct German dialect...

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Upper Silesian metropolitan area

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The Upper Silesian metropolitan area is a metropolitan area in southern Poland and northeastern Czech Republic, centered on the cities of Katowice and...

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Upper Silesian Industrial Region

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The Upper Silesian Industrial Region (Polish: Górnośląski Okręg Przemysłowy, pronounced [gurnɔˈɕlɔ̃skʲi ˌɔkrɛŋk pʂɛmɨˈswɔvɨ], Polish abbreviation: GOP...

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Battle of Legnica

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Henry's personal command, the Silesians, Moravians, and Templars. According to Chambers' description of the battle, the Silesian cavalry initiated combat with...

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top other nationalities being the indigenous Silesians (78,838), but most of which declared both Silesian and Polish at the same time (possibility to declare...

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1459 Peace of Eger; Germanic Silesians in the adjacent Sudetes region with the County of Kladsko, in the Moravian–Silesian Region, in Svitavy and Olomouc...

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Silesian Piasts

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The Silesian Piasts were the elder of four lines of the Polish Piast dynasty beginning with Władysław II the Exile (1105–1159), eldest son of Duke Bolesław...

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Lower Silesian Voivodeship

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Lower Silesian Voivodeship, or Lower Silesia Province, in southwestern Poland, is one of the 16 voivodeships (provinces) into which Poland is divided....

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Polish tribes

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important tribes who were conquered by Polans were the Masovians, Vistulans, Silesians and Pomeranians. These five tribes "shared fundamentally common culture...

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List of people from Silesia

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sociologist Max Born, physicist Willibald Borowietz, general Arka Bożek, Silesian politician; pl Josef Božek, engineer and inventor Ernst-Joachim Bradel...

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Lists of people by nationality

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Kodavas Kurds Macedonians Malays Moravians Nagas Punjabis Roma Samis Silesians Sindhis Sinhalese Syriacs Tamils Tatars Telugus Tulus Tutsis Lists of...

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Province of Silesia

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Province of Silesia (German: Provinz Schlesien; Polish: Prowincja Śląska; Silesian: Prowincyjŏ Ślōnskŏ) was a province of Prussia from 1815 to 1919. The Silesia...

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Duchies of Silesia

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Prussia following the First Silesian War. This was confirmed following the Second Silesian War in 1745 and the Third Silesian War in 1763. Following the...

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Flag of Saxony

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flags equality alongside the Saxon state flag. Flag of Silesians (with eagle) Flag of Silesians Flag of Sorbs Previous versions First Saxon flag of Old...

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Poland again in 1945 after the end of World War II. Many German Upper Silesians and Poles of ethnic German ancestry still reside in the Opole region;...

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Demographics of Czechoslovakia

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population of 15.6 million Czechs, Slovaks, Hungarians, Romani people, Silesians, Ruthenians, Ukrainians, Germans, Poles and Jews. The ethnic population...

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Flag of Upper Silesia

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the Union of Upper Silesians, an independence movement for Upper Silesia, proposed a design for a flag of the potential Upper Silesian independent state...

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West Slavic languages

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the 16th century, thus uniting the Bohemians, Moravians, Slovaks, and Silesians under a single ruler. While Lusatia was lost to Saxony in 1635 and most...

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Poles in Spain

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Metropolis GZM

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is a metropolitan unit composed of 41 contiguous municipalities in the Silesian Voivodeship of Poland. The seat of the metropolitan council is Katowice...

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Katowice urban area

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katowicka, pronounced [kɔnurˈbat͡sja katɔˈvit͡ska]), also known as the Upper Silesian urban area (Polish: Konurbacja górnośląska, pronounced [kɔnurˈbat͡sja ɡurnɔˈɕlɔ̃ska])...

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Cieszyn Silesian dialect

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(Wasserpolnisch) or less pejoratively Silesian-Polish (schlesisch-polnisch), but mostly with Silesian by the Upper Silesians and Poles. The Polish linguists...

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First Silesian War

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The First Silesian War (German: Erster Schlesischer Krieg) was a war between Prussia and Austria that lasted from 1740 to 1742 and resulted in Prussia's...

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Opole Voivodeship

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Voivodeship is bordered by Lower Silesian Voivodeship to the west, Greater Poland and Łódź Voivodeships to the north, Silesian Voivodeship to the east, and...

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Jan Kustos

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minority for Silesians in Poland, member of town council in Katowice in the period 1926-1927, founder of the Trade Union of Upper Silesians in 1927, and...

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