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Sense
Sensation consists of signal collection and transduction.

A sense is a biological system used by an organism for sensation, the process of gathering information about the surroundings through the detection of stimuli. Although, in some cultures, five human senses were traditionally identified as such (namely sight, smell, touch, taste, and hearing), many more are now recognized.[1] Senses used by non-human organisms are even greater in variety and number. During sensation, sense organs collect various stimuli (such as a sound or smell) for transduction, meaning transformation into a form that can be understood by the brain. Sensation and perception are fundamental to nearly every aspect of an organism's cognition, behavior and thought.

In organisms, a sensory organ consists of a group of interrelated sensory cells that respond to a specific type of physical stimulus. Via cranial and spinal nerves (nerves of the Central and Peripheral nervous systems that relay sensory information to and from the brain and body), the different types of sensory receptor cells (such as mechanoreceptors, photoreceptors, chemoreceptors, thermoreceptors) in sensory organs transduct sensory information from these organs towards the central nervous system, finally arriving at the sensory cortices in the brain, where sensory signals are processed and interpreted (perceived).

Sensory systems, or senses, are often divided into external (exteroception) and internal (interoception) sensory systems. Human external senses are based on the sensory organs of the eyes, ears, skin, nose, mouth and the vestibular system. Internal sensation detects stimuli from internal organs and tissues. Internal senses possessed by humans include spatial orientation, proprioception (body position) and nociception (pain). Further internal senses lead to signals such as hunger, thirst, suffocation, and nausea, or different involuntary behaviors, such as vomiting.[2][3][4] Some animals are able to detect electrical and magnetic fields, air moisture, or polarized light, while others sense and perceive through alternative systems, such as echolocation. Sensory modalities or sub modalities are different ways sensory information is encoded or transduced. Multimodality integrates different senses into one unified perceptual experience. For example, information from one sense has the potential to influence how information from another is perceived.[5] Sensation and perception are studied by a variety of related fields, most notably psychophysics, neurobiology, cognitive psychology, and cognitive science.

  1. ^ Bradford, Alina (23 October 2017). "The Five (and More) Senses". Live Science. Retrieved 2021-06-16.
  2. ^ Campbell, Neil A. (2017). Biology. Pearson Education UK. ISBN 978-1-292-17044-2. OCLC 1017000156.
  3. ^ Tsakiris, Manos; de Preester, Helena (2019). The introspective mind: from homeostasis to awareness (1st ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0198811930. OCLC 1036733582. Retrieved 22 January 2022.
  4. ^ Khalsa, Sahib S.; Lapidus, Rachel C . (2016-07-25). "Can Interoception Improve the Pragmatic Search for Biomarkers in Psychiatry?". Frontiers in Psychiatry. 7: 121. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2016.00121. ISSN 1664-0640. PMC 4958623. PMID 27504098.
  5. ^ Privitera, A. J. (2020). "Sensation and perception". In Biswas-Diener, R.; Diener, E. (eds.). Psychology. Noba textbook series. Champaign, IL: DEF publishers.

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