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Ferdinand Marcos information


His Excellency
Ferdinand Marcos
CCLH KGCR
Marcos in 1982
10th President of the Philippines
In office
December 30, 1965 – February 25, 1986
Prime Minister
  • Himself (1978–1981)
  • Cesar Virata (1981–1986)
Vice President
  • Fernando Lopez (1965–1972)
  • Vacant (1972–1986)
Preceded byDiosdado Macapagal
Succeeded byCorazon Aquino
3rd Prime Minister of the Philippines
In office
June 12, 1978 – June 30, 1981
Preceded byOffice re-established;
position previously held by Pedro Paterno
Succeeded byCesar Virata
Secretary of National Defense
In office
August 28, 1971 – January 3, 1972
PresidentHimself
Preceded byJuan Ponce Enrile
Succeeded byJuan Ponce Enrile
In office
December 31, 1965 – January 20, 1967
PresidentHimself
Preceded byMacario Peralta
Succeeded byErnesto Mata
Political offices 1949‍–‍1965
9th President of the Senate of the Philippines
In office
April 5, 1963 – December 30, 1965
Preceded byEulogio Rodriguez
Succeeded byArturo Tolentino
Senate Minority Leader
In office
January 25, 1960 – January 22, 1962
Preceded byAmbrosio Padilla
Succeeded byEstanislao Fernandez
Senator of the Philippines
In office
December 30, 1959 – December 30, 1965
Member of the House of Representatives from Ilocos Norte's 2nd district
In office
December 30, 1949 – December 30, 1959
Preceded byPedro Albano
Succeeded bySimeon M. Valdez
Personal details
Born
Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos

(1917-09-11)September 11, 1917
Sarrat, Ilocos Norte, Philippines[a]
DiedSeptember 28, 1989(1989-09-28) (aged 72)
Honolulu, Hawaii, US
Resting place
  • Ferdinand E. Marcos Presidential Center, Batac, Ilocos Norte (1993‍–‍2016)
  • Libingan ng mga Bayani, Taguig, Metro Manila (since 2016; disputed)[1][2][3]
Political partyKilusang Bagong Lipunan (1978–1989)
Other political
affiliations
  • Liberal (1946–1965)
  • Nacionalista (1965–1978)
Spouses
Carmen Ortega (common‑law)
(before 1954)
[4]
Imelda Romualdez
(m. 1954)
Children9, including Imee, Bongbong, Irene, and Aimee
Parent
  • Mariano Marcos (father)
Alma materUniversity of the Philippines Diliman (LL.B)
Occupation
  • Jurist
  • lawyer
  • politician
SignatureFerdinand Marcos
Nicknames
  • Apo Lakay
  • Ferdie
  • Macoy
Military service
Allegiance
  • Philippines
  • United States[b]
Years of service1942–1945
Rank
  • First lieutenant
  • Major
Unit
  • 21st Infantry Division (USAFFE)
  • 14th Infantry Regiment (USAFIP-NL)
Battles/warsWorld War II

Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos Sr.[c] (September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was a Filipino politician, lawyer, dictator,[7][8][9] and kleptocrat[10][11][12] who served as the tenth president of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. He ruled under martial law from 1972 until 1981[13] and kept most of his martial law powers until he was deposed in 1986, branding his rule as "constitutional authoritarianism"[14][15]: 414  under his Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (New Society Movement). One of the most controversial leaders of the 20th century, Marcos's rule was infamous for its corruption,[16][17][18] extravagance,[19][20][21] and brutality.[22][23][24]

Marcos gained political success by claiming to have been the "most decorated war hero in the Philippines",[25] but many of his claims have been found to be false,[26][27][28] with United States Army documents describing his wartime claims as "fraudulent" and "absurd".[29][30] After World War II, he became a lawyer then served in the Philippine House of Representatives from 1949 to 1959 and the Philippine Senate from 1959 to 1965. He was elected president of the Philippines in 1965 and presided over an economy that grew during the beginning of his 20-year rule[31] but would end in the loss of livelihood, extreme poverty for almost half the Philippine population,[32][33] and a crushing debt crisis.[34][33] He pursued an aggressive program of infrastructure development funded by foreign debt,[35][36] making him popular during his first term, although it triggered an inflationary crisis which led to social unrest in his second term.[37][38] Marcos placed the Philippines under martial law on September 23, 1972,[39][40] shortly before the end of his second term. Martial law was ratified in 1973 through a fraudulent referendum.[41] The constitution was revised, media outlets were silenced,[42] and violence and oppression were used[24] against the political opposition,[43][44] Muslims,[45] suspected communists,[46][47] and ordinary citizens.[44]

After being elected for a third term in the 1981 presidential election and referendum, Marcos's popularity suffered greatly, due to the economic collapse that began in early 1983 and the public outrage over the assassination of opposition leader Senator Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino Jr. later that year. This discontent, the resulting resurgence of the opposition in the 1984 parliamentary election, and the discovery of documents exposing his financial accounts and false war records led Marcos to call the snap election of 1986. Allegations of mass cheating, political turmoil, and human rights abuses led to the People Power Revolution of February 1986, which removed him from power.[48] To avoid what could have been a military confrontation in Manila between pro- and anti-Marcos troops, Marcos was advised by US president Ronald Reagan through Senator Paul Laxalt to "cut and cut cleanly".[49] Marcos then fled with his family to Hawaii.[50] He was succeeded as president by Aquino's widow, Corazon "Cory" Aquino.[51][52][53]

According to source documents provided by the Presidential Commission on Good Government (PCGG),[54] the Marcos family stole US$5 billion–$10 billion from the Central Bank of the Philippines.[55][56] The PCGG also maintained that the Marcos family enjoyed a decadent lifestyle, taking away billions of dollars[57] from the Philippines[58][59] between 1965 and 1986. His wife, Imelda Marcos, made infamous in her own right by the excesses that characterized her and her husband's "conjugal dictatorship",[60][61][62] is the source of the term Imeldific.[63] Two of their children, Imee and Bongbong, are active in Philippine politics, with Bongbong having been elected president in the 2022 presidential election. Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos held the Guinness World Record for the largest-ever theft from a government for decades,[64] although Guinness took the record down from their website while it underwent periodic review a few weeks before the 2022 election.[65]


Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

  1. ^ Cite error: The named reference contested was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  2. ^ Pedroza, Stephen (August 31, 2016). "Are we really burying Marcos' 'body'". Archived from the original on October 15, 2023. Retrieved November 7, 2023.
  3. ^ Zambrano, Chiara (July 4, 2011). "Marcos in mausoleum-Wax or real?". Archived from the original on April 23, 2023. Retrieved November 7, 2023.
  4. ^ Cite error: The named reference loveLiesLoot was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  5. ^ Jones, Daniel (2011). Roach, Peter; Setter, Jane; Esling, John (eds.). "Marcos". Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 305. ISBN 978-0-521-15255-6.
  6. ^ The New Websters Dictionary of the English Language. Lexicon Publications, Inc. 1994. p. 609. ISBN 0-7172-4690-6.
  7. ^ Bonner, William; Bonner, Raymond (1987). Waltzing with a Dictator: The Marcoses and the Making of American Policy. Times Books. ISBN 978-0-8129-1326-2.
  8. ^ Fuentecilla, Jose V. (April 1, 2013). Fighting from a Distance: How Filipino Exiles Helped Topple a Dictator. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-09509-2. Archived from the original on November 20, 2021. Retrieved September 30, 2021.
  9. ^ "Marcos: Rise and fall of a dictator". Philippine Daily Inquirer. November 19, 2016. Archived from the original on July 2, 2022. Retrieved January 26, 2018.
  10. ^ David, Chaikin; Sharman, J.C. (2009). "The Marcos Kleptocracy". Corruption and Money Laundering: A Symbiotic Relationship. Palgrave Series on Asian Governance. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 153–186. doi:10.1057/9780230622456_7. ISBN 978-0-230-61360-7. Archived from the original on November 7, 2023. Retrieved September 18, 2021.
  11. ^ Root, Hilton L. (2019). "Lootable Resources and Political Virtue: The Economic Governance of Lee Kuan Yew, Ferdinand Marcos, and Chiang Kai-shek Compared". In Mendoza, Ronald U.; Beja, Edsel L. Jr.; Teehankee, Julio C.; La Viña, Antonio G. M.; Villamejor-Mendoza, Maria Fe (eds.). Building Inclusive Democracies In ASEAN. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. pp. 225–241. doi:10.1142/9789813236493_0013. ISBN 978-981-3236-50-9. S2CID 158645388. Archived from the original on April 16, 2022. Retrieved March 13, 2022.
  12. ^ Roa, Ana (September 29, 2014). "Regime of Marcoses, cronies, kleptocracy". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on June 28, 2018. Retrieved March 2, 2016.
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  16. ^ Shleifer, Andrei; Vishny, Robert W. (August 1, 1993). "Corruption*". The Quarterly Journal of Economics. 108 (3): 599–617. doi:10.2307/2118402. ISSN 0033-5533. JSTOR 2118402. S2CID 265951232. Retrieved March 13, 2022.
  17. ^ Quah, Jon S.T. (2010). "Curbing Corruption in the Philippines: Is this an Impossible Dream". Philippine Journal of Public Administration. 54 (1–2): 1–43. Archived from the original on September 25, 2021. Retrieved September 1, 2020 – via University of the Philippines Diliman.
  18. ^ Hodess, Robin; Inowlocki, Tania; Rodriguez, Diana; Wolfe, Toby, eds. (2004). Global Corruption Report 2004 (PDF). Sterling, VA, USA: Pluto Press in association with Transparency International. pp. 13, 101. ISBN 0-7453-2231-X. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 13, 2022. Retrieved September 18, 2021.
  19. ^ Traywick, Catherine (January 16, 2014). "Shoes, Jewels, and Monets: The Immense Ill-Gotten Wealth of Imelda Marcos". Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on August 16, 2017. Retrieved August 27, 2017.
  20. ^ "The weird world of Imelda Marcos". The Independent. February 25, 1986. Archived from the original on September 23, 2018. Retrieved July 9, 2017.
  21. ^ Laurie, Jim (1986). "Excerpt – Imelda Marcos from ABC 20/20 March 1986". ABC News. Archived from the original on December 11, 2021.
  22. ^ Conde, Carlos H. (July 8, 2007). "Marcos family returning to the limelight in the Philippines". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 28, 2018. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
  23. ^ Cite error: The named reference amnestyInternational1975 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  24. ^ a b "Alfred McCoy, Dark Legacy: Human rights under the Marcos regime". Ateneo de Manila University. September 20, 1999. Archived from the original on September 1, 2022. Retrieved November 7, 2023.
  25. ^ Bueza, Michael (August 20, 2016). "Marcos' World War II 'medals' explained". Rappler. Archived from the original on October 10, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
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  27. ^ Maynigo, Benjamin. "Marcos fake medals redux (Part II)". Asian Journal USA. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016.
  28. ^ Bondoc, Jarius (April 8, 2011). "Suspicions resurface about Marcos heroism". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on March 6, 2016. Retrieved February 27, 2016.
  29. ^ Cite error: The named reference JeffGerth&JoelBrinkley19860123 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  30. ^ Maynigo, Benjamin. "Marcos fake medals redux (Part I)". Asian Journal USA. Archived from the original on February 8, 2017.
  31. ^ "GDP (constant LCU) – Data". data.worldbank.org. Archived from the original on August 2, 2017. Retrieved August 2, 2017.
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  51. ^ Benigno Aquino Jr. (August 21, 1983). "The undelivered speech of Senator Benigno S. Aquino Jr. upon his return from the U.S., August 21, 1983". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Archived from the original on October 7, 2023. Retrieved November 7, 2023.
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tenth President, kleptocrat and dictator Ferdinand Marcos and former First Lady Imelda Marcos. In 1980, Marcos became Vice Governor of Ilocos Norte, running...

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her husband Ferdinand Marcos placed the country under martial law in September 1972. She is the mother of current president Bongbong Marcos. During her...

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the daughter of Ferdinand Marcos and former first lady Imelda Marcos and the older sister of the current president, Bongbong Marcos. She previously served...

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Marcos Stadium

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The Ferdinand E. Marcos Memorial Stadium, also known as Marcos Stadium, is a football and track stadium in Laoag, Ilocos Norte. The site of the present...

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president Ferdinand Marcos and former first lady Imelda Marcos. Marcos's presence is known as being "the quiet one" because among the Marcos siblings,...

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The bust of Ferdinand Marcos along the Aspiras–Palispis Highway in Tuba, Benguet, Philippines, was a 30-meter (98 ft) concrete monument of former Philippine...

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The military career of former Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos during World War II has been the subject of debate and controversy, both in the Philippines...

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Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos, historically referred to using the catchphrase "Marcos cronies", benefited from their friendship with Marcos – whether in...

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Historical distortion regarding Ferdinand Marcos is a political phenomenon in the Philippines. Ferdinand Marcos was the country's president between 1965...

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Aimee Marcos

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former Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos and former first lady Imelda Marcos. She was the only member of the immediate Marcos family to still be a minor...

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the father of Ferdinand Marcos, who was President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986, and the grandfather of current senator Imee Marcos and the current...

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Marcos mansions

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The term "Marcos mansions" refers to at least 50 upscale residences in the Philippines of the family of President Ferdinand Marcos. These are aside from...

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Inauguration of Ferdinand Marcos

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Inauguration of Ferdinand Marcos may refer to: First inauguration of Ferdinand Marcos, 1965 Second inauguration of Ferdinand Marcos, 1969 Prime ministerial...

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People Power Revolution

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arrived in Malacañang Palace to secure it after Ferdinand Marcos had left - marking the end of the Marcos dictatorship, and placing the palace under the...

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denote the rule of Philippine president and dictator Ferdinand Marcos and his wife Imelda Marcos, and is also used to describe a type of familial dictatorship...

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