As with most technology, the question of When did Artificial Intelligence Research begin is a complicated one. The history of AI dates back several decades. Initially, AI researchers focused on accumulating knowledge from experts and then sharing it with users. In the late 1970s, the revival of connectivism helped AI projects gain momentum. However, by 1974, funding for AI projects was difficult to find. Nevertheless, there are a few key milestones that mark the beginning of AI research.
The first major milestone in AI development is when IBM’s Deep Blue computer defeated the world’s champion chess player. A year later, Honda released ASIMO, an artificially intelligent humanoid robot. The development of artificial intelligence continued after Y2K. The first robots to mimic human behavior and emotions were developed in the mid-1990s. Later, the human-like Furby was developed by Dave Hampton and Caleb Chung, who were inspired by the human condition.
In 1965, Alan Turing and his colleagues began developing a computer program called the Logic Theorist to crack the Enigma code, a secret code used by the Germans to send messages. This machine was developed by their team, who named it “Bombe”. This project laid the foundation for Machine Learning. Turing believed that a machine that could converse with humans without them realizing that it was a computer was intelligent.
AI began to emerge in the last century, as people began adopting the idea of a robot. This idea was based on a play by Karel Capek, which was written in 1920 and has continued to influence movies and stories to this day. The emergence of AI in science fiction and other forms of art made in the 1900s was a huge milestone in the development of artificial intelligence. The rise of the robot revolution and the use of artificial intelligence in fiction has been a significant milestone in this century.
As the technology of computer programs increased, AI began to be used in various industries. Advancements in computer power and attention to isolated problems enabled the development of AI, but the reputation of AI remained tarnished in the business world. The first human-like artificial intelligence robot, WABOT-1, was built in Japan in 1972. The world’s first intelligent humanoid robot, Deep Blue, subsequently beat the world champion chess player Kasparov in the same year.
The term AI was coined by John McCarthy, who proposed a two-month study of AI. Other scientists like Marvin Minsky and Nathaniel Rochester proposed the study. The two-month workshop on AI took place in July and August 1956. These two conferences are widely regarded as the official start of AI. During that time, Herbert Simon and Allen Newell developed the Logic Theorist, which demonstrates the first artificial automatic self-regulation system. The system allowed the computers to learn from user experience and perform tasks like answering questions.
The birth of AI has many milestones. The IBM computer program Deep Blue, which defeated the reigning world chess champion Gary Kasparov in 1997, used a systematic brute-force algorithm to examine all possible moves. Deep Blue was a symbol of the development of AI, but it did not model the complexity of the real world. This AI grew in the 1990s with the implementation of speech recognition software for Windows.
A key milestone for the field is the development of Unimate, an industrial robot invented by George Devol. Its duty was to perform hazardous tasks like transporting die castings from an assembly line. It later became the first industrial robot. In 1967, Unimate began working on an assembly line in New Jersey. In 1967, Daniel G. Bobrow developed a heuristic problem-solving program called STUDENT. This program could read and solve algebra word problems.
The field of AI began in the 1950s with the development of computer vision systems. This technology was hailed by the performance of IBM’s Watson program on the game “Jeopardy!” in 2001. The technology has advanced rapidly since then, with computer-vision systems being showcased in 2005. However, the field did not really come into existence until 1956, when a conference at Dartmouth College was held to promote the development of artificial intelligence. The term “artificial intelligence” was not coined until then.