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Arauco War information


Arauco War

Map of the Araucanía from the 18th century, showing a large part of the territory in which the Arauco War was fought.
DateHistoriographic divergence:
  • 1546 – until the end of the 17th century; and sporadically the 18th century[1]
  • 1550–1662 (112 years)[2]
  • 1550–1656 (106 years)[3]
Location
Araucanía region and surrounding regions of the Captaincy General of Chile (present-day Chile)
Result
  • Spanish invasion of Araucanía permanently reversed around 1600.
  • Gradual Spanish reestablishment of rule south of Araucanía from 1645 to 1796.
  • Failure of the Spanish evangelization strategy in Araucanía.
  • Stabilization of frontiers, development of Mapuche–Spanish diplomacy and trade since the mid-17th century.
  • Belligerents

    Spanish Empire Spanish Empire

    • Spanish Empire Captaincy General of Chile
    Mapuche allies
    Mapuches, Pehuenches, Huilliches, Cuncos and other groups
    Commanders and leaders
    Spanish Empire Pedro de Valdivia Executed
    Spanish Empire Francisco de Villagra
    Spanish Empire García Hurtado de Mendoza
    Spanish Empire Rodrigo de Quiroga
    Spanish Empire Alonso de Sotomayor
    Spanish Empire Martín García Óñez de Loyola 
    Spanish Empire Alonso García de Ramón
    Spanish Empire Alonso de Ribera
    Spanish Empire Francisco Laso de la Vega
    Spanish Empire Pedro Porter Casanate
    Spanish Empire Gabriel Cano de Aponte
    and others
    Ainavillo
    Lautaro 
    Caupolicán Executed
    Colocolo
    Galvarino
    Millalelmo
    Loble
    Pelantaru
    Anganamón
    Lientur
    Butapichón
    Alejo
    Vilumilla
    Curiñancu
    and others
    Strength

    Spanish forces:[4]

    • Conquerors companies (1546–1557)
    • Local detachments and recruits from other regions (1557–1604)
    • Army of Arauco (1604 onward)

    Indian auxiliaries:

    • Yanaconas
    • Indios reyunos
    Mapuches, Pehuenches, Huilliches, Cuncos and other warriors
    Spanish and mestizo renegades

    The Arauco War was a long-running conflict between colonial Spaniards and the Mapuche people, mostly fought in the Araucanía region of Chile. The conflict began at first as a reaction to the Spanish conquerors attempting to establish cities and force Mapuches into servitude. It subsequently evolved over time into phases comprising drawn-out sieges, slave-hunting expeditions, pillaging raids, punitive expeditions, and renewed Spanish attempts to secure lost territories. Abduction of women and war rape was common on both sides.[5]

    After many initial Spanish successes in penetrating Mapuche territory, the Battle of Curalaba in 1598 and the following destruction of the Seven Cities marked a turning point in the war leading to the establishment of a clear frontier between the Spanish domains and the land of the independent Mapuche. From the 17th to the late 18th century a series of parliaments were held between royal governors and Mapuche lonkos and the war devolved to sporadic pillaging carried out by both sides.

    In the words of Philip II, this conflict cost the largest number of Spanish lives in the New World, which is why it became known as the Flandes indiano ("Indian Flanders"), in reference to the Eighty Years' War.[6]

    1. ^ Góngora, Mario (1951). El estado en el derecho indiano: época de fundación (1492–1570) (in Spanish). Instituto de Investigaciones Histórico-Culturales, Facultad de Filosofía y Educación, Universidad de Chile. p. 95.
    2. ^ Villalobos, Sergio (1995). Vida fronteriza en la Araucanía: el mito de la Guerra de Arauco (in Spanish). Editorial Andrés Bello. p. 35.
    3. ^ "La Guerra de Arauco (1550–1656) – Memoria Chilena".
    4. ^ Guerrero, Cristián (2013). "¿Un ejército profesional en Chile durante el siglo XVII?" (PDF) (in Spanish). Santiago, Chile: Centro de Estudios Históricos de la Universidad Bernardo O'Higgins. Retrieved August 24, 2019. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
    5. ^ Guzmán, Carmen Luz (2013). "Las cautivas de las Siete Ciudades: El cautiverio de mujeres hispanocriollas durante la Guerra de Arauco, en la perspectiva de cuatro cronistas (s. XVII)" [The captives of the Seven Cities: The captivity of hispanic-creole women during the Arauco's War, from the insight of four chroniclers (17th century)]. Intus-Legere Historia (in Spanish). 7 (1): 77–97. doi:10.15691/07176864.2014.094 (inactive January 31, 2024).{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of January 2024 (link)
    6. ^ Encina, Francisco, and Leopoldo Castedo, volume I, p. 36

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