Zambia (/ˈzæmbiə,ˈzɑːm-/), officially the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country at the crossroads of Central, Southern and East Africa, and is typically referred to as being in South-Central Africa. Its neighbours are the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the northeast, Malawi to the east, Mozambique to the southeast, Zimbabwe and Botswana to the south, Namibia to the southwest, and Angola to the west. The capital city is Lusaka, located in the south-central part. The population of around 20.1 million (2023) is concentrated mainly around Lusaka in the south and the Copperbelt Province to the north, the core economic hubs of the country.
The region was affected by the Bantu expansion of the 13th century. Following the arrival of European explorers in the 18th century, the British colonised the region into the British protectorates of Barotseland-North-Western Rhodesia and North-Eastern Rhodesia comprising 73 tribes, towards the end of the 19th century. These were merged in 1911 to form Northern Rhodesia. For most of the colonial period, Zambia was governed by an administration appointed from London with the advice of the British South Africa Company. On 24 October 1964, Zambia became independent of the United Kingdom and prime minister Kenneth Kaunda became the inaugural president. From 1972 to 1991 Zambia was a one-party state with the United National Independence Party as the sole legal political party under the motto "One Zambia, One Nation" coined by Kaunda. Kaunda was succeeded by Frederick Chiluba of the social-democratic Movement for Multi-Party Democracy in 1991, beginning a period of government decentralisation.
Zambia contains minerals, wildlife, forestry, freshwater and arable land. In 2010, the World Bank named Zambia one of the world's fastest economically reformed countries.
^Census of Population and Housing National Analytical Report 2010 Archived 14 November 2017 at the Wayback Machine Central Statistical Office, Zambia
^United Nations Statistics Division. "Population by sex, rate of population increase, surface area and density" (PDF). Retrieved 9 November 2007.
^"Zambia : Preliminary data shows Population grew from 13.1 million in 2010 to 19.6 million in 2022". 24 December 2022. Retrieved 27 December 2022.
^ abcd"Zambia". International Monetary Fund.
^"Gini Index". World Bank. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
^Human Development Report 2020: The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene(PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN 978-92-1-126442-5. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
^Henderson, Ian (1970). "The Origins of Nationalism in East and Central Africa: The Zambian Case". The Journal of African History. 11 (4): 591–603. doi:10.1017/S0021853700010471. ISSN 0021-8537. JSTOR 180923. S2CID 154296266.