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War of the Pacific information


War of the Pacific

Map showing changes of territory caused by the War of the Pacific. Earlier maps from 1879 show different border lines between Bolivia and Peru and Bolivia and Argentina.
DateApril 5, 1879 – October 20, 1883
4 years, 6 months and 15 days (Chile-Peru Peace)
  • Bolivia-Chile armistice in 1884
  • Peace with Bolivia signed October 20, 1904
Location
Peru and Bolivia on the Pacific coast of South America
Result

Chilean victory

  • Bolivia becomes a landlocked country.
  • The Peruvian Civil War of 1884-1885 occurred a year later to the Treaty of Ancon
  • Chilean influence increases in Peru until 1885
Territorial
changes
  • Litoral Department (Antofagasta) occupied by Chile since 1879, ceded by Bolivia to Chile in 1904.
  • Tarapacá Department occupied by Chile since 1879, ceded by Peru to Chile in 1884.
  • Puna de Atacama ceded by Bolivia to Chile and Argentina in 1889 and 1899.
  • Tacna Region occupied by Chile since 1880, returned to Peru in 1929.
  • Arica Province occupied by Chile since 1880, ceded to Chile in 1929.
Belligerents
War of the Pacific Bolivia
War of the Pacific Peru
War of the Pacific Chile
Commanders and leaders
Presidents of Bolivia
H. Daza (1876–1879)
P.J.D. de Guerra (1879)
N. Campero (1879–1884)

Presidents of Peru
M.I. Prado (1876–1879)
L. La Puerta (1879)
N. de Piérola (1879–1881)
F. García C. (1881)
L. Montero F. (1881–1883)
M. Iglesias (1882–1885)
Presidents of Chile
A. Pinto (1876–1881)
D. Santa María (1881–1886)
Strength

War of the Pacific Bolivia

1879 (prewar)
Bolivian Army:
1,687[1]

War of the Pacific Peru

Peruvian Army:
5,557[2]
Peruvian Navy:
4 ironclads
7 wooden ships
2 torpedo boats[3]

1880

Peruvian Army:
25,000–35,000 men
(Army of Lima)[4]
Peruvian Navy:
3 ironclads
7 wooden ships
2 torpedo boats[3]

War of the Pacific Chile

1879 (prewar)
Chilean Army:
2,440[5] men
Chilean Navy:
2 ironclads
9 wooden ships
4 torpedo boats[3]

1880
Chilean Army:
27,000 (Ante Lima)
8,000 (Occupation Force)
6,000 (Mainland)[6]
Chilean Navy:
3 ironclads
8 wooden ships
10 torpedo boats[3]
Casualties and losses
Killed and wounded:
About 25,000[7]
Captured:
About 9,000[7]
Killed:
2,791–2,825[8]
Wounded:
7,193–7,347[8]

The War of the Pacific (Spanish: Guerra del Pacífico), also known as the Nitrate War (Spanish: Guerra del salitre) and by multiple other names, was a war between Chile and a Bolivian–Peruvian alliance from 1879 to 1884. Fought over Chilean claims on coastal Bolivian territory in the Atacama Desert, the war ended with victory for Chile, which gained a significant amount of resource-rich territory from Peru and Bolivia.

The primary cause of the war was a nitrate taxation dispute between Bolivia and Chile, with Peru being drawn in due to its secret alliance with Bolivia. Some historians have pointed to deeper origins of the war, such as the interest of Chile and Peru in the nitrate business, a long-standing rivalry between Chile and Peru for regional hegemony, as well as the political and economical disparities between the stability of Chile and the volatility of Peru and Bolivia.[A] On February 1878, Bolivia increased taxes on the Chilean mining company Compañía de Salitres y Ferrocarril de Antofagasta (CSFA), in violation of the Boundary Treaty of 1874 which established the border between both countries and prohibited tax increases for mining. Chile protested the violation of the treaty and requested international arbitration, but the Bolivian government, presided by Hilarión Daza, considered this to be an internal issue subject to the jurisdiction of the Bolivian courts. Chile insisted that breaking the treaty would mean no longer being tied to the territorial borders denoted in it. Despite this, Hilarión Daza rescinded the license of the Chilean company, seized its assets and put them up for auction. On the day of the auction, February 14, 1879, Chile's armed forces occupied the Bolivian port city of Antofagasta without resistance, being mostly inhabited by Chilean miners. War was then declared between Bolivia and Chile on March 1, 1879, and between Chile and Peru on April 5, 1879.

Battles were fought on the Pacific Ocean, the Atacama Desert, the Peruvian deserts, and the mountainous interior of Peru. For the first five months, the war played out in a naval campaign, as Chile struggled to establish a marine resupply corridor for its forces in the world's driest desert. Afterwards, Chile's land campaign overcame the Bolivian and Peruvian armies. Bolivia withdrew after the Battle of Tacna, on May 26, 1880, leaving allied Peru fighting alone for most of the war. Chilean forces occupied Peru's capital Lima in January 1881. Remnants and irregulars of the Peruvian army waged a guerrilla war but could not prevent war-weary Peruvian factions from reaching a peace deal with Chile involving territorial cessions.

Chile and Peru signed the Treaty of Ancón on October 20, 1883. Bolivia signed a truce with Chile in 1884. Chile acquired the Peruvian territory of Tarapacá, the disputed Bolivian department of Litoral (turning Bolivia into a landlocked country), and temporary control over the Peruvian provinces of Tacna and Arica. In 1904, Chile and Bolivia signed the Treaty of Peace and Friendship, which established definite boundaries. The 1929 Tacna–Arica compromise gave Arica to Chile and Tacna to Peru.

  1. ^ Sater 2007, p. 51 Table 2
  2. ^ Sater 2007, p. 45 Table 1
  3. ^ a b c d Sater 2007, pp. 113–4 Table 6
  4. ^ Sater 2007, p. 274
  5. ^ Sater 2007, p. 58 Table 3
  6. ^ Cite error: The named reference sater2007_263 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  7. ^ a b Sater 2007, p. 349 Table 23.
  8. ^ a b Sater 2007, p. 348 Table 22. The statistics on battlefield deaths are inaccurate because they do not provide follow-up information on those who later died of their wounds.
  9. ^ St. John, Ronald Bruce; Schofield, Clive (1994). The Bolivia–Chile–Peru Dispute in the Atacama Desert. University of Durham, International Boundaries Research Unit. pp. 12–13. ISBN 1897643144.


Cite error: There are <ref group=upper-alpha> tags or {{efn-ua}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=upper-alpha}} template or {{notelist-ua}} template (see the help page).

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