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Truffle information

Black truffle (Tuber melanosporum)
White truffles from San Miniato
Black truffles from San Miniato

A truffle is the fruiting body of a subterranean ascomycete fungus, predominantly one of the many species of the genus Tuber. In addition to Tuber, over one hundred other genera of fungi are classified as truffles including Geopora, Peziza, Choiromyces, and Leucangium.[1] These genera belong to the class Pezizomycetes and the Pezizales order. Several truffle-like basidiomycetes are excluded from Pezizales, including Rhizopogon and Glomus. Truffles are ectomycorrhizal fungi, so they are usually found in close association with tree roots. Spore dispersal is accomplished through fungivores, animals that eat fungi.[2] These fungi have significant ecological roles in nutrient cycling and drought tolerance.

Some truffle species are highly prized as food. French gastronome Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin called truffles "the diamond of the kitchen".[3] Edible truffles are used in Italian, French[4] and numerous other national haute cuisines. Truffles are cultivated and harvested from natural environments.

  1. ^ Læssøe, Thomas; Hansen, Karen (September 2007). "Truffle trouble: what happened to the Tuberales?". Mycological Research. 111 (9): 1075–1099. doi:10.1016/j.mycres.2007.08.004. ISSN 0953-7562. PMID 18022534.
  2. ^ Lepp, Heino. "Spore release and dispersal". Australian National Botanic Gardens. Archived from the original on 14 November 2016. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
  3. ^ Brillat-Savarin, Jean Anthelme (1838) [1825]. Physiologie du goût. Paris: Charpentier. English translation Archived 2008-07-06 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ "Truffles". Traditional French Food Regional Recipes From Around France. 2017. Archived from the original on 2017-01-07. Retrieved 2017-01-06.

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