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Tigray War information


Tigray War
Part of the Ethiopian civil conflict (2018–present)
Ethiopian Civil War (2020-present).svg
Territorial control as of November 2022
(for a more detailed, up-to-date, interactive map, see here)
Pro-federal government troops
  Ethiopian federal government and regional allies
  Eritrean Defence Forces
  Ethiopian federal government and Eritrean Defence Forces

Anti-federal government rebels

  Tigray Defense Forces
  Oromo Liberation Army
Date3 November 2020[a] – 3 November 2022
(2 years)
  • Full-scale war:
    3 November 2020 – 24 March 2022
  • Ceasefire:
    24 March – 24 August 2022
  • War re-escalates:
    24 August – 3 November 2022
  • Rapprochement:
    3 November 2022 – present
Location
Tigray Region, Amhara Region, and Afar Region, Ethiopia; Central Region, Eritrea; Eritrea–Ethiopia border; Spillovers in Al Qadarif, Sudan
Result

Ethiopian government victory[21][22]

  • The government and the TPLF formally agreed to a cessation of hostilities and systematic, verifiable disarmament (2 November 2022)[23][24]
    • Second agreement for implementing the peace deal signed by both parties (12 November 2022)[25][26][27]
Belligerents

Tigray War Ethiopia

  • Tigray War Amhara
  • Tigray War Afar[1]
  • Tigray War Benishangul-Gumuz (2021–)[2]
  • Tigray War Dire Dawa (2021–)[3]
  • Tigray War Gambela (2021–)[2]
  • Tigray War Harari (2021–)[2]
  • Tigray War Oromia (2021–)[4]
  • Tigray War Sidama (2021–)[4]
  • Tigray War Somali Region (2021–)[2]
  • Tigray War SNNPR (2021–)[5][6]
Tigray War Eritrea[7][8]
Arms suppliers:
  • Tigray War United Arab Emirates[9][10]
  • Tigray War Turkey[10]
  • Tigray War Iran[10]
  • Tigray War China[11]

Tigray War UFEFCF (2021–)[12][13]

  • Tigray War Tigray
  • Tigray War OLA (2021–)[14][15]
  • Tigray War Agew Liberation Front (2021–)[16]
  • Tigray War SNLF (2021–)[17]
  • Tigray War Somali State Resistance (2021–)[13]
  • Kimant Democratic Party (2021–)[13]
  • Tigray War Gambella People’s Liberation Army (2021–)[18]
  • Tigray War ARDUF (2021–22)[19]
  • Tigray War BPLM (2021–22)[20]
Commanders and leaders
Ethiopia Abiy Ahmed
Ethiopia Birhanu Jula
Ethiopia Abebaw Tadesse
Ethiopia Kenea Yadeta (2020–21)
Ethiopia Abraham Belay (2021–)
Tigray War Tiruneh Temesgen (2020)
Tigray War Agegnehu Teshager (2020–21)
Tigray War Yilikal Kefale (2021–)
Tigray War Awol Arba
Eritrea Isaias Afewerki
Eritrea Filipos Woldeyohannes
Tigray War Debretsion Gebremichael
Tigray War Fetlework Gebregziabher
Tigray War Tsadkan Gebretensae[28][29]
Tigray War Tadesse Werede
Tigray War Getachew Reda
Tigray War Jaal Marroo[14]
Units involved
Flag of the Ethiopian National Defense Force (3).svg ENDF
  • Ethiopian Ground Forces
  • ETAF[30]
Tigray War EPF
Tigray War Amhara Special Forces
Tigray War Amhara Police Force
Tigray War Afar Special Forces
Tigray War Afar Police Force
Tigray War EDF[8]
  • Eritrean Army
  • ERAF
  • Tigray War Tigray Defense Forces
  • Tigray War Oromo Liberation Army (2021–)
Strength
Tigray WarTigray War ~500,000 (Oct. 2022)[31] Tigray War ~200,000 (Oct. 2022)[31]
Casualties and losses
Tigray War 3,073 killed, 4,473 injured, 8,000 captured (rebel claim)[32][33]
2 MiG-23 lost[34][35]
2 Mi-35 lost[36][37][38]
1 C-130 lost[39]
Tigray War Unknown killed
Tigray War 5,600 killed, 2,300 injured, 2,000 captured (Ethiopian military claim)[40]

Exact casualty figures are disputed
3 UN guards and 23 aid workers killed[41]
875,879+ refugees[42] (20,000 missing)[43]
2,750,000 internally displaced[42]
13,000,000 in need of food aid[44]

Total Deaths:
385,000–600,000+ (per Ghent University)[45]
700,000–800,000 (per analyst Abdurahman Sayed)[31]

The Tigray War[b] was an armed conflict that lasted from 3 November 2020[a] to 3 November 2022.[50][51] The war was primarily fought in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia between the Ethiopian federal government and Eritrea on one side, and the Tigray People's Liberation Front (TPLF) on the other.[52][53]

After years of increased tensions and hostilities between the TPLF and the governments of Ethiopia and Eritrea, fighting began when Tigrayan security forces attacked the Northern Command headquarters of the Ethiopian National Defense Force (ENDF), alongside a number of other bases in Tigray.[54] The ENDF counterattacked from the south – while Eritrean Defence Forces (EDF) began launching attacks from the north – which Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed described as "law enforcement operations."[55][56] Federal allied forces captured Mekelle, the capital of the Tigray Region, on 28 November, after which Abiy declared the operation "over."[57][58] However, the Tigray government stated soon afterwards that it would continue fighting until the "invaders" were out,[59][60] and on 28 June 2021, the Tigray Defense Forces retook Mekelle; by July the same year, they had also advanced into the Amhara and Afar regions.[61] In early November 2021, the TDF, together with the Oromo Liberation Army (OLA), took control of several towns on the highway south from Tigray Region towards Addis Ababa, and the TPLF stated that it considered "marching on [the capital]."[62][63] Together with seven smaller rebel groups, the TPLF and OLA declared a coalition aiming to "dismantle Abiy's government by force or by negotiations, and then form a transitional authority."[64]

After a successful government counter-offensive in response, and then a series of negotiations with the TPLF, Ethiopia declared an indefinite humanitarian truce on 24 March 2022, in order to allow the delivery of humanitarian aid into Tigray.[65] However, fighting dramatically re-escalated in late August 2022, after peace talks broke down.[66] Rapid mobilization of troops soon followed, with Ethiopia, Eritrea and Tigray reportedly organizing hundreds of thousands of troops against each other by October the same year.[31] After a number of peace and mediation proposals in the intervening years, Ethiopia and the Tigrayan rebel forces agreed to a cessation of hostilities on 2 November, which went into effect the day after;[51] Eritrea was not a party to the agreement, however, and their status has remained unclear.[67]

All sides, particularly the ENDF, EDF, and TDF, have committed war crimes during the conflict.[68][69][70][71] Mass extrajudicial killings of civilians have taken place throughout, including in Axum,[72] Bora,[73] Chenna,[74][75] Kobo,[76][77] the Hitsats refugee camp,[78] Humera,[79] Mai Kadra,[70][80] the Debre Abay monastery,[73][81] and Zalambessa.[82] An estimated 385,000–⁠600,000 people have been killed,[45] and war rape became a "daily" occurrence, with girls as young as 8 and women as old as 72 being raped, often in front of their families.[83][84] A major humanitarian crisis has developed as a result of the war,[42] with famine becoming widespread.[85][44] It also inflicted immense economic damage on the region, with the cost of rebuilding alone estimated to be roughly $20 billion.[86][87][88]

  1. ^ "Regional Special Forces Pose Threat to Peace and Security in Ethiopia". Ipi Global Observatory. 22 February 2021. Archived from the original on 22 February 2021.
  2. ^ a b c d Endeshaw, Dawit; Flick, Maggie (19 July 2021). "Ethiopia's Tigray forces enter neighbouring Afar region, Afar says". Reuters.
  3. ^ "Ethiopia's Amhara state rallies residents to fight Tigrayans". Al Jazeera. 25 July 2021.
  4. ^ a b Endeshaw, Dawit (16 July 2021). "Three more regions reinforce Ethiopia army, Amhara against Tigray forces". Reuters.
  5. ^ "Ethiopia: Fear Tigray conflict could trigger all-out war". DW. 20 July 2021.
  6. ^ Endeshaw, Dawit (16 July 2021). "Three more regions reinforce Ethiopia army, Amhara against Tigray forces". Reuters.
  7. ^ "Ethiopian PM confirms Eritrean troops entered Tigray during conflict". Reuters. 23 March 2021. Archived from the original on 23 March 2021.
  8. ^ a b "Eritrea confirms its troops are fighting in Ethiopia's Tigray". Al Jazeera. 17 April 2021.
  9. ^ "UAE air bridge provides military support to Ethiopia gov't". Al Jazeera.
  10. ^ a b c Walsh, Declan (20 December 2021). "Foreign Drones Tip the Balance in Ethiopia's Civil War". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331.
  11. ^ Cite error: The named reference Toronto_Star_UAE was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  12. ^ Pamuk, Humeyra; Fick, Maggie (5 November 2021). Toby Chopra (ed.). "Ethiopian anti-government alliance says plans to dismantle government by force or negotiations". Reuters.
  13. ^ a b c Anna, Cara; Merchant, Norman (5 November 2021). "Tigray, other groups form alliance against Ethiopia's leader". The Washington Post. Associated Press.
  14. ^ a b Anna, Cara (11 August 2021). "Ethiopia armed group says it has alliance with Tigray forces". AP News.
  15. ^ "Leaked EU Diplomatic Cable: Delegation of the European Union to Ethiopia". Scoop. 25 August 2021.
  16. ^ Kifle, Shuwa. "Zerbricht Äthiopien im Bürgerkrieg?". heise online (in German).
  17. ^ "The Sidama National Liberation Front to Join the Coalition of Resistance by the Federalist Forces". Sidama National Liberation Front. 23 August 2021.
  18. ^ Latif Dahir, Abdi; Jakes, Lara (5 November 2021). "Eight Groups Join Tigray Rebels Vowing to Oust Ethiopia's Leader". The New York Times.
  19. ^ "An Afar-based armed group parts its ways with TPLF-led alliance". My Views on News. 1 February 2022.
  20. ^ "Benishangul Gumuz regional govt, rebel group sign peace agreement". Addis Standard. 19 October 2022.
  21. ^ "Ethiopia civil war: Tigray truce a triumph for PM Abiy Ahmed". BBC News. 3 November 2022.
  22. ^ Walsh, Declan; Dahir, Abdi Latif; Chutel, Lynsey (2 November 2022). "Ethiopia and Tigray Forces Agree to Truce in Calamitous Civil War". The New York Times.
  23. ^ "African Union: Agreement reached on permanent cessation of hostilities in Ethiopia". National Post. 2 November 2022.
  24. ^ Winning, Alexander; Cocks, Tim (2 November 2022). "Combatants in Ethiopia's Tigray war agree to stop fighting". Reuters.
  25. ^ Mersie, Ayenat (12 November 2022). "Ethiopia combatants sign deal to start implementing truce". Reuters.
  26. ^ https://english.aawsat.com/home/article/3983166/ethiopia-truce-implementation-start-%E2%80%98immediately%E2%80%99-mediator-says
  27. ^ "Ethiopia Rivals Agree on Humanitarian Access for Tigray". International Business Times. 12 November 2022.
  28. ^ "Ethiopia's Tigray War: A Deadly, Dangerous Stalemate". Crisis Group. 2 April 2021.
  29. ^ Marks, Simon; Walsh, Declan (22 January 2021). "On 'Rooftop of Africa,' Ethiopia's Troops Hunt Fugitive Former Rulers". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331.
  30. ^ "Wieder Luftangriffe der Armee in Tigray" (in German). Deutsche Welle. 9 November 2020. Archived from the original on 19 November 2020.
  31. ^ a b c d Cite error: The named reference :27 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  32. ^ "Ethiopia's Tigray conflict: Thousands reported killed in clashes". BBC News. 6 September 2021.
  33. ^ "After battlefield reversals, what next for Ethiopia's Tigray war?". Al Jazeera. 10 July 2021.
  34. ^ "Aviation Occurrence N 267277 Mig-23". Aviation Safety Network. 6 December 2020.
  35. ^ Brhams, Jacob (30 November 2020). "Tigray Rebels Down Jet, Capture Pilot, One Day After Ethiopian Prime Minister Declares Victory". Overt Defense.
  36. ^ "TDF downed A Mi-35 helicopter in central Tigray". Global Defense Corp. 22 April 2021.
  37. ^ Ranter, Harro. "Accident Mil Mi-35, 20 Apr 2021". aviation-safety.net.
  38. ^ "فيديو : قوات دفاع تجراى تسقط مروحية عسكرية اثيوبية وتفتح جبهة قتال جديدة فى محافظة "شرق كوجام"". farajat. 12 November 2021.
  39. ^ "Ethiopia: C-130 aircraft downed south of Tigray region". monde24.com (in Arabic). 6 June 2021.
  40. ^ "Ethiopia: Thousands of Tigray rebels killed, military claims". BBC News. 4 September 2021.
  41. ^ "HC a.i. statement on the killing of 23 aid workers in the Tigray region since the start of the crisis". Relief Web. 1 September 2020.
  42. ^ a b c "UNICEF Ethiopia Humanitarian Situation Report No. 9 - September 2022". ReliefWeb. UNICEF. 29 October 2022. Archived from the original on 30 October 2022.
  43. ^ "Ethiopia: UN says 20,000 refugees missing in Tigray". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 4 February 2021.
  44. ^ a b Paravicini, Giulia (20 August 2022). "Nearly half the people in Ethiopia's Tigray in 'severe' need of food aid, World Food Programme says". Reuters. Archived from the original on 11 October 2022.
  45. ^ a b York, Geoffrey (21 October 2022). "Surge of dehumanizing hate speech points to mounting risk of mass atrocities in northern Ethiopia, experts say". The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on 22 October 2022. Independent scholars, based at Ghent University in Belgium, suggest that the death toll in Tigray is now between 385,000 and 600,000.
  46. ^ "Ethiopia's Tigray war: The short, medium and long story". BBC News. 29 June 2021. The conflict started on 4 November…
  47. ^ "Inside a military base in Ethiopia's Tigray: soldiers decry betrayal by former comrades". Reuters. 17 December 2020. Archived from the original on 17 December 2020. The government says fighters loyal to the TPLF attacked federal military bases at multiple locations in Tigray early on Nov. 4 after jamming communications […] Lt. Gen. Bacha Debele said radio communications were cut […] at 10:00 p.m. on Nov. 3.
  48. ^ Cite error: The named reference BBC_4Nov_2witnesses was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  49. ^ "Ethiopia war: UN investigative Human rights commission debuts 6-day visit". Africanews. AFP. 26 July 2022. The [commission] is mandated […] to 'conduct a thorough and impartial investigation into allegations of violations and abuses of international human rights law […] in Ethiopia committed since 3 November 2020 by all parties to the conflict'
  50. ^ "Ethiopia peace deal hailed as a 'new dawn'". Al Jazeera. 3 November 2022.
  51. ^ a b "Agreement for Lasting Peace through a Permanent Cessation of Hostilities between the Government of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia and the Tigray People's Liberation Front" (PDF). Addis Standard. 2 November 2022. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 November 2022. This Agreement shall come into effect at 00:00 hours East Africa Time (EAT) on 3rd November 2022.
  52. ^ Paravicini, Giulia; Endeshaw, Dawit (4 November 2020). "Ethiopia sends army into Tigray region, heavy fighting reported". Reuters. Archived from the original on 19 November 2020.
  53. ^ "Exclusive: U.S. thinks Eritrea has joined Ethiopian war, diplomats say". Reuters. 8 December 2020. Archived from the original on 9 December 2020.
  54. ^ Cite error: The named reference :12 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  55. ^ "The conflict in Ethiopia". Reuters. Archived from the original on 19 December 2020.
  56. ^ "Concern of Outright War in Ethiopia Grows as PM Presses Military Offensive". Voice of America. Reuters. 9 November 2020.
  57. ^ "Ethiopia says military operation in Tigray region is over, hunt for Tigray leaders begins". Reuters. 28 November 2020. Archived from the original on 12 January 2021.
  58. ^ "Ethiopia's Tigray crisis: Army 'takes regional capital of Mekelle'". BBC News. 28 November 2020. Archived from the original on 28 November 2020. Mr Abiy said the army was in full control and that this "marks the completion of the [military's] last phase".
  59. ^ "Ethiopia: 'We are in our homeland, the invaders are attacking us,' says Tigray's Gebremichael". France 24. 15 December 2020. Archived from the original on 16 December 2020. Debretsion Gebremichael told France 24 that [Tigray] would continue fighting as long as federal 'invaders' are on Tigrayan soil. […] [He] believes neighbouring Eritrea is playing a key role in the conflict. 'They already have 16 divisions in Tigray. They are fighting on the side of the federal army... They have a united front against us. Wherever you go, they are there.'
  60. ^ "In Ethiopia, Abiy Ahmed's forces have won the battle but not the war". The Economist. 1 December 2020. ISSN 0013-0613. Archived from the original on 2 December 2020.
  61. ^ "Ethiopia's government announce ceasefire as Tigrayan troops retake region's capital". CNN. 28 June 2021.
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  63. ^ Wintour, Patrick (2 November 2021). "Ethiopia declares state of emergency as Tigrayan rebels gain ground". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 7 November 2021.
  64. ^ Parivicini, Giulia; Flick, Maggie (11 August 2021). Giles Elgood; Mark Heinrich (eds.). "Ethiopia's Tigray forces seek new military alliance". Reuters. Archived from the original on 1 October 2021.
  65. ^ "Ethiopia declares unilateral truce to allow aid into Tigray". Al Jazeera. 24 March 2022.
  66. ^ "Fighting in northern Ethiopia shatters months-long truce". The Guardian. Agence France-Presse. 24 August 2022. Archived from the original on 11 October 2022.
  67. ^ Winning, Alexander; Cocks, Tim (2 November 2022). "Parties in Ethiopia conflict agree to cease hostilities". Reuters.
  68. ^ "Ethiopia: Unlawful Shelling of Tigray Urban Areas". Human Rights Watch. 11 February 2021. Archived from the original on 14 February 2021.
  69. ^ Dahir, Abdi Latif; Hicks, Tyler (9 December 2020). "Fleeing Ethiopians Tell of Ethnic Massacres in Tigray War". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 10 December 2020.
  70. ^ a b "Rapid Investigation into Grave Human Rights Violation Maikadra - Preliminary Findings". Ethiopian Human Rights Commission. 24 November 2020.
  71. ^ Nebehay, Stephanie; Endeshaw, Dawit (3 November 2021). "Joint UN, Ethiopia rights team: all sides committed abuses in Tigray". Reuters.
  72. ^ "The massacre in Axum". Amnesty International. 26 February 2021. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 February 2021.
  73. ^ a b Kassa, Lucy; Bulos, Nabih (23 March 2021). "In an out-of-sight war, a massacre comes to light". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 23 March 2022.
  74. ^ "Tigray forces killed 120 civilians in village in Amhara - Ethiopia officials". Reuters. 9 September 2021.
  75. ^ "Ethiopia: Tigrayan forces murder, rape and pillage in attacks on civilians in Amhara towns". Amnesty International. 16 February 2022.
  76. ^ "'Then the killing started': Witnesses accuse Tigray fighters". Associated Press. 26 September 2021. Archived from the original on 26 September 2021.
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  82. ^ "'You can't even cry loudly': Counting Ethiopia's war dead". AP NEWS. 15 November 2021.
  83. ^ "Rape is being used as weapon of war in Ethiopia, say witnesses". The Guardian. 14 May 2021.
  84. ^ Akinwotu, Emmanuel (11 August 2021). "'Like I wasn't a person': Ethiopian forces accused of systematic rape in Tigray". The Guardian.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  85. ^ "Ethiopia: Tigray on brink of humanitarian disaster, UN says". The Guardian. 14 January 2022.
  86. ^ "Ethiopia: Status of western Tigray to be settled 'by law'". CityNews. AP. 15 November 2022.
  87. ^ "News: Despite data limitation from Tigray, Ministry estimates $1.4 b needed to restore war damaged health facilities across Ethiopia". Addis Standard. 22 November 2022.
  88. ^ Sharif, Sally (18 November 2022). "Ethiopia's peace may depend on post-conflict plans for Tigray soldiers". The Washington Post.


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