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Munich massacre information

Munich massacre
Part of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict
Front view of Connollystraße 31 in 2007. The window of Apartment 1 is to the left of and below the balcony.
LocationMunich, West Germany
Coordinates48°10′47″N 11°32′57″E / 48.17972°N 11.54917°E / 48.17972; 11.54917Coordinates: 48°10′47″N 11°32′57″E / 48.17972°N 11.54917°E / 48.17972; 11.54917
Date5–6 September 1972
4:31 am – 12:04 am (UTC+1)
TargetIsraeli Olympic team
Attack type
  • Hostage-taking
  • Mass shooting
  • Massacre
17 total (12 victims, 5 perpetrators; see list)
  • 6 Israeli coaches
  • 5 Israeli athletes
  • 1 West German police officer
  • 5 Black September members
PerpetratorsBlack September

The Munich massacre was a terrorist attack carried out during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, West Germany, by eight members of the Palestinian militant organization Black September, who infiltrated the Olympic Village, killed two members of the Israeli Olympic team, and took nine others hostage.[1][2][3][4] Black September called the operation "Iqrit and Biram",[5] after two Palestinian Christian villages whose inhabitants were expelled by the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.[6][7][8] The Black September commander was Luttif Afif, who was also their negotiator. West German neo-Nazis gave the group logistical assistance.[9]

Shortly after the hostages were taken, Afif demanded the release of 234 Palestinian prisoners who were being held in Israeli jails, plus the West German–imprisoned founders of the Red Army Faction, Andreas Baader and Ulrike Meinhof.[10][11] West German police ambushed the terrorists, and killed five of the eight Black September members, but the rescue attempt failed and all of the hostages were killed.[12] A West German policeman was also killed in the crossfire, and the West German government was criticized for the poor execution of its rescue attempt and its overall handling of the incident. The three surviving perpetrators were Adnan Al-Gashey, Jamal Al-Gashey, and Mohammed Safady, who were arrested, only to be released the next month in the hostage exchange that followed the hijacking of Lufthansa Flight 615. By then, the Israeli government had launched Operation Wrath of God, which authorized Mossad to track down and kill anyone who had played a role in the attack.[13][14]

Two days prior to the start of the 2016 Summer Olympics, in a ceremony led by Brazilian and Israeli officials, the International Olympic Committee honored the eleven Israelis and one German who were killed at Munich.[15] In the 2020 Summer Olympics, a moment of silence was observed in the opening ceremony.[16]

  1. ^ Juan Sanchez (7 August 2007). Terrorism & Its Effects. Global Media. p. 144. ISBN 978-81-89940-93-5. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  2. ^ Aubrey, Stefan M. (11 September 2001). The New Dimension of International Terrorism. ISBN 9783728129499. Retrieved 22 June 2010.
  3. ^ Encyclopedia of terrorism. SAGE Publications. 2003. p. 248. ISBN 9780761924081. Retrieved 22 June 2010 – via Internet Archive.
  4. ^ Simon, Jeffrey David (18 July 1976). The Terrorist Trap: America's Experience with Terrorism. ISBN 0253214777. Retrieved 22 June 2010.
  5. ^ Sylas, Eluma Ikemefuna (2006). Terrorism: A Global Scourge. ISBN 9781425905309. Retrieved 7 June 2010.
  6. ^ Benveniśtî, Mêrôn (2000). Sacred landscape: the buried history of the Holy Land since 1948. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-23422-2. pp. 325–326.
  7. ^ "Justice for Ikrit and Biram" Archived 12 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Haaretz, 10 October 2001.
  8. ^ Elias Chacour with David Hazard: Blood Brothers: A Palestinian Struggles for Reconciliation in the Middle East. ISBN 0-8007-9321-8. Foreword by Secretary James A. Baker III. 2nd Expanded ed. 2003. pp. 44–61.
  9. ^ Latsch, Gunther; Wiegrefe, Klaus (18 June 2012), "Files Reveal Neo-Nazis Helped Palestinian Terrorists", Spiegel Online
  10. ^ Reeve, Simon (22 January 2006). "Olympics Massacre: Munich – The real story". The Independent. Archived from the original on 16 March 2012. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
  11. ^ Fleisher, Malkah (22 July 2012). "'Baffled' Bob Costas to Call Own Minute of Silence During Olympic Broadcast for Slain Israeli Team". The Jewish Press. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
  12. ^ Cite error: The named reference :0 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  13. ^ James Montague (5 September 2012). "The Munich massacre: A survivor's story". CNN. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
  14. ^ "The Mossad's secret wars". Al Jazeera. 20 February 2010. Retrieved 26 July 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  15. ^ "First official Olympic ceremony held in memory of Munich victims" Archived 14 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine, The Jerusalem Post; accessed 5 September 2017.
  16. ^ Spungin, Tal (23 July 2021). "Olympics: Moment of silence for Munich massacre victims for first time". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 23 July 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)

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