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Methanol information

Skeletal formula of methanol with some explicit hydrogens added
Skeletal formula of methanol with some explicit hydrogens added
Spacefill model of methanol
Spacefill model of methanol
Space filling model of methanol
Space filling model of methanol
Ball and stick model of methanol
Ball and stick model of methanol
A sample of methanol
Preferred IUPAC name
Other names
Columbian spirits
Methyl alcohol
Methyl hydroxide
Methylic alcohol
Methylene hydrate, primary alcohol
Pyroligneous spirit
Wood alcohol
Wood naphtha
Wood spirit
CAS Number
  • 67-56-1 checkY
3D model (JSmol)
  • Interactive image
  • B01170
Beilstein Reference
  • CHEBI:17790 checkY
  • ChEMBL14688 checkY
  • 864 checkY
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.599 Edit this at Wikidata
EC Number
  • 200-659-6
Gmelin Reference
  • D02309 checkY
MeSH Methanol
PubChem CID
  • 887
RTECS number
  • PC1400000
  • Y4S76JWI15 checkY
UN number 1230
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
  • DTXSID2021731 Edit this at Wikidata
  • InChI=1S/CH4O/c1-2/h2H,1H3 checkY
  • InChI=1/CH4O/c1-2/h2H,1H3
  • CO
Chemical formula
Molar mass 32.042 g·mol−1
Appearance Colourless liquid
Odor Faint and similar to ethanol
Density 0.792 g/cm3[2]
Melting point −97.6 °C (−143.7 °F; 175.6 K)
Boiling point 64.7 °C (148.5 °F; 337.8 K)
Solubility in water
log P −0.69
Vapor pressure 13.02 kPa (at 20 °C)
Acidity (pKa) 15.5[3]
Conjugate acid Methyloxonium[4]
Conjugate base Methanolate[5]
Magnetic susceptibility (χ)
−21.40·10−6 cm3/mol
Refractive index (nD)
Viscosity 0.545 mPa·s (at 25 °C)[7]
Dipole moment
1.69 D
Heat of combustion, higher value (HHV)
725.7 kJ/mol, 173.4 kcal/mol, 5.77 kcal/g
Occupational safety and health (OHS/OSH):
Main hazards
Methanol and its vapours are flammable.

Moderately toxic for small animals – Highly toxic to large animals and humans (in high concentrations) – May be fatal/lethal or cause blindness and damage to the liver, kidneys, and heart if swallowed – Toxicity effects from repeated over exposure have an accumulative effect on the central nervous system, especially the optic nerve – Symptoms may be delayed, become severe after 12 to 18 hours, and linger for several days after exposure[9]

GHS labelling:
GHS02: FlammableGHS06: ToxicGHS08: Health hazard[8]
Signal word
Hazard statements
H225, H301, H302, H305, H311, H331, H370[8]
Precautionary statements
P210, P233, P235, P240, P241, P242, P243, P260, P264, P270, P271, P280, P301+P330+P331, P302+P352, P303+P361+P353, P304+P340, P305+P351+P338, P307+P311, P310, P311, P312, P337+P313, P361, P363, P370+P378, P403+P233, P405, P501[8]
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
NFPA 704 four-colored diamondHealth 1: Exposure would cause irritation but only minor residual injury. E.g. turpentineFlammability 3: Liquids and solids that can be ignited under almost all ambient temperature conditions. Flash point between 23 and 38 °C (73 and 100 °F). E.g. gasolineInstability 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g. liquid nitrogenSpecial hazards (white): no code
Flash point 11 to 12 °C (52 to 54 °F; 284 to 285 K)
470 °C (878 °F; 743 K)[15]

385 °C (725 °F; 658 K)[16]

Explosive limits 6–36%[10]
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
LD50 (median dose)
5628 mg/kg (rat, oral)
7300 mg/kg (mouse, oral)
12880 mg/kg (rat, oral)
14200 mg/kg (rabbit, oral)[11]
LC50 (median concentration)
64,000 ppm (rat, 4 h)[11]
LCLo (lowest published)
33,082 ppm (cat, 6 h)
37,594 ppm (mouse, 2 h)[11]
NIOSH (US health exposure limits):
PEL (Permissible)
TWA 200 ppm (260 mg/m3)[10]
REL (Recommended)
TWA 200 ppm (260 mg/m3) ST 250 ppm (325 mg/m3) [skin][10]
IDLH (Immediate danger)
6000 ppm[10]
Safety data sheet (SDS) [1]
Related compounds
Related compounds
Supplementary data page
Methanol (data page)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Methanol (also called methyl alcohol and wood spirit, amongst other names) is an organic chemical compound and the simplest aliphatic alcohol, with the chemical formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated as MeOH). It is a light, volatile, colorless and flammable liquid with a distinctive alcoholic odour similar to that of ethanol (potable alcohol).[17] Methanol acquired the name wood alcohol because it was once produced chiefly by the destructive distillation of wood. Today, methanol is mainly produced industrially by hydrogenation of carbon monoxide.[18]

Methanol consists of a methyl group linked to a polar hydroxyl group. With more than 20 million tons produced annually, it is used as a precursor to other commodity chemicals, including formaldehyde, acetic acid, methyl tert-butyl ether, methyl benzoate, anisole, peroxyacids, as well as a host of more specialised chemicals.[18]

  1. ^ Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry: IUPAC Recommendations and Preferred Names 2013 (Blue Book). Cambridge: The Royal Society of Chemistry. 2014. p. 692. doi:10.1039/9781849733069-00648. ISBN 978-0-85404-182-4.
  2. ^ Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5.
  3. ^ Ballinger, P.; Long, F. A. (1960). "Acid Ionization Constants of Alcohols. II. Acidities of Some Substituted Methanols and Related Compounds". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 82 (4): 795–798. doi:10.1021/ja01489a008.
  4. ^ "Methyloxonium". Archived from the original on 21 December 2018. Retrieved 21 December 2018.
  5. ^ "Methanolate". Archived from the original on 21 December 2018. Retrieved 21 December 2018. Methoxide is an organic anion that is the conjugate base of methanol. ... It is a conjugate base of a methanol.
  6. ^ "RefractiveIndex.INFO – Refractive index database". Archived from the original on 23 February 2017. Retrieved 14 February 2012.
  7. ^ González, Begoña (2007). "Density, dynamic viscosity, and derived properties of binary mixtures of methanol or ethanol with water, ethyl acetate, and methyl acetate at T = (293.15, 298.15, and 303.15) K". The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics. 39 (12): 1578–1588. doi:10.1016/j.jct.2007.05.004.
  8. ^ a b c d "Methanol" (PDF). Lab Chem. Valtech. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 March 2016. Retrieved 10 March 2016.
  9. ^ Toxicity on PubChem Archived 20 August 2018 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ a b c d NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0397". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
  11. ^ a b c "Methanol". Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
  12. ^ a b "The Emergency Response Safety and Health Database: Systematic Agent: METHANOL". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on 23 April 2009. Retrieved 3 August 2018.
  13. ^ "PubChem: Safety and Hazards - GHS Classification". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. Archived from the original on 20 August 2018. Retrieved 20 August 2018.
  14. ^ "Methanol Safe Handling Manual" (PDF). Methanol Institute. 2017. p. 253. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 December 2017. Retrieved 3 August 2018.
  15. ^ "Technical Information & Safe Handling Guide for Methanol". Methanex Corporation. Archived from the original on 11 March 2012.
  16. ^ "Methanol Safe Handling Manual" (PDF). Methanol Institute. 2017. p. 243. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 December 2017. Retrieved 3 August 2018.
  17. ^ National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (22 August 2008). "The Emergency Response Safety and Health Database: Methanol". Archived from the original on 23 April 2009. Retrieved 17 March 2009.
  18. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Ullmann was invoked but never defined (see the help page).

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