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Lower Saxony information

Lower Saxony
Niedersachsen (German)
Neddersassen (Low German)
Läichsaksen (Saterland Frisian)
Flag of Lower Saxony
Coat of arms of Lower Saxony
Locator map Lower-Saxony in Germany.svg
Coordinates: 52°45′22″N 9°23′35″E / 52.75611°N 9.39306°E / 52.75611; 9.39306
 • BodyLandtag of Lower Saxony
 • Minister-PresidentStephan Weil (SPD)
 • Governing partiesSPD / CDU
 • Bundesrat votes6 (of 69)
 • Bundestag seats73 (of 736)
 • Total47,614.07 km2 (18,383.90 sq mi)
 • Total8,003,421
 • Density170/km2 (440/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
ISO 3166 codeDE-NI
GRP (nominal)€315.810 billion (2021)[2]
GRP per capita~€40,000 (2021)
NUTS RegionDE9
HDI (2019)0.935[3]
very high · 11th of 16
Lower Saxony
Map of Lower Saxony

Lower Saxony (German: Niedersachsen [ˈniːdɐzaksn̩] (Lower Saxonylisten); Low German: Neddersassen; Saterland Frisian: Läichsaksen) is a German state (Land) in northwestern Germany. It is the second-largest state by land area, with 47,624 km2 (18,388 sq mi), and fourth-largest in population (8 million in 2021) among the 16 Länder federated as the Federal Republic of Germany. In rural areas, Northern Low Saxon and Saterland Frisian are still spoken, albeit in declining numbers.

Lower Saxony borders on (from north and clockwise) the North Sea, the states of Schleswig-Holstein, Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Brandenburg, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia, Hesse and North Rhine-Westphalia, and the Netherlands. Furthermore, the state of Bremen forms two enclaves within Lower Saxony, one being the city of Bremen, the other its seaport, Bremerhaven (which is a semi-enclave, as it has a coastline). Lower Saxony thus borders more neighbours than any other single Bundesland. The state's largest cities are state capital Hanover, Braunschweig (Brunswick), Lüneburg, Osnabrück, Oldenburg, Hildesheim, Wolfenbüttel, Wolfsburg, and Göttingen.

Lower Saxony is the only Bundesland that encompasses both maritime and mountainous areas. The northwestern area of the state, on the coast of the North Sea, is called East Frisia and the seven East Frisian Islands offshore are popular with tourists. In the extreme west of Lower Saxony is the Emsland, an economically emerging but rather sparsely populated area, once dominated by inaccessible swamps. The northern half of Lower Saxony, also known as the North German Plain, is almost invariably flat except for the gentle hills around the Bremen geestland. Towards the south and southwest lie the northern parts of the German Central Uplands: the Weser Uplands and the Harz Mountains. Between these two lie the Lower Saxon Hills, a range of low ridges.

Lower Saxony's major cities and economic centres are mainly situated in its central and southern parts, namely Hanover, Braunschweig, Osnabrück, Wolfsburg, Salzgitter, Hildesheim, and Göttingen. Oldenburg, near the northwestern coastline, is another economic centre. The region in the northeast, the Lüneburg Heath (Lüneburger Heide), is the largest heathland area of Germany. In the Middle Ages, it was wealthy due to salt-mining and the salt trade, as well as, to a lesser degree, the exploitation of its peat bogs, which went on until the 1960s. To the north the Elbe River separates Lower Saxony from Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, and Brandenburg. The banks just south of the Elbe are known as the Altes Land (Old Country). Due to its gentle local climate and fertile soil, it is the state's largest area of fruit farming, its chief produce being apples.

Most of the state's territory was part of the historic Kingdom of Hanover, and the state of Lower Saxony has adopted the coat of arms and other symbols of the former kingdom. It was created by the merger of the State of Hanover with three smaller states on 1 November 1946.

  1. ^ "Landesamt für Statistik Niedersachsen".
  2. ^ "Bruttoinlandsprodukt (VGR) | Drupal |".
  3. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". Retrieved 6 May 2022.

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Lower Saxony

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Saxony (German: Sachsen [ˈzaksn̩] (listen); Upper Saxon: Saggsn; Upper Sorbian: Sakska), officially the Free State of Saxony (German: Freistaat Sachsen...

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Politics of Lower Saxony

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The Politics of Lower Saxony takes place within a framework of a federal parliamentary representative democratic republic, where the Federal Government...

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Flag of Lower Saxony

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The flag of Lower Saxony consists of the flag of the Federal Republic of Germany in Schwarz-Rot-Gold, with the coat of arms of Lower Saxony, shifted slightly...

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Lower Saxony State Party

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The Lower Saxony National Party (Niedersächsische Landespartei) was a short lived regionalist political party in Germany. It was founded in 1945 as a recreation...

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Old Saxony

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"Old Saxony" is the original homeland of the Saxons. It corresponds roughly to the modern German states of Lower Saxony, eastern part of modern North Rhine-Westphalia...

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List of cities and towns in Germany

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Rhine-Westphalia: 272 cities and towns Hesse: 191 cities and towns Saxony: 169 cities and towns Lower Saxony: 159 cities and towns Rhineland-Palatinate: 130 cities...

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German football league system

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regional association league system in the states of Bremen, Hamburg, Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein and starts at level four of the German league...

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List of cities in Lower Saxony by population

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following list sorts all cities and communes in the German state of Lower Saxony with a population of more than 25,000. As of December 31, 2017, 63 cities...

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Day of Lower Saxony

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The Day of Lower Saxony (German: Tag der Niedersachsen or TdN) is a three-day, cultural state festival in the German state of Lower Saxony, which has...

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States of Germany

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is now part of the state of Saxony-Anhalt. Baden is now part of Baden-Württemberg. Braunschweig is now part of Lower Saxony. Lippe is now part of North...

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Vehicle registration plates of Germany

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they combined their initials into TDO, instead of abbreviating Northern Saxony as NS. On the other hand, the area codes HH and AH were chosen for Hansestadt...

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Elections in Germany

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1998 Lower Saxony state election 2003 Lower Saxony state election 2008 Lower Saxony state election 2013 Lower Saxony state election 2017 Lower Saxony state...

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Brunswiek [ˈbrɔˑnsviːk], Braunschweig dialect: Bronswiek) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany, north of the Harz Mountains at the farthest navigable point...

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Unincorporated area

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which served as military training areas: Osterheide and Lohheide in Lower Saxony, and Gutsbezirk Münsingen in Baden-Württemberg. They had fewer than 2...

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Coat of arms of Lower Saxony

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federal-state of Lower Saxony shows a white Saxon Steed (German: Sachsenross) on a red background. It is used on the flag of Lower Saxony. According to German...

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Duchy of Saxony

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Northern Germany, including the modern German states (Länder) of Lower Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt up to the Elbe and Saale rivers in the east, the city-states...

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List of Christian monasteries in Germany

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religious houses in Brandenburg. This list also includes Berlin. see Lower Saxony see Schleswig-Holstein Eberbach Abbey, Eltville Eibingen Abbey, Rüdesheim...

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List of German transport associations

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Verkehrsverbund Bremen-Niedersachsen (reaches into Lower Saxony) HVV Hamburger Verkehrsverbund (reaches into Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein) NVV Nordhessischer...

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Northern Germany

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the coastal states of Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and Lower Saxony and the two city-states Hamburg and Bremen. It contrasts with Southern...

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2013 Lower Saxony state election

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The 2013 Lower Saxony state election was held on 20 January 2013 to elect the members of the 17th Landtag of Lower Saxony. The incumbent coalition government...

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German: Hannober) is the capital and largest city of the German state of Lower Saxony. Its 535,932 (2021) inhabitants make it the 13th-largest city in Germany...

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List of rulers of Saxony

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of Saxony comprised the lands of the Saxons in the north-western part of present-day Germany, namely, the contemporary German state of Lower Saxony as...

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List of places in Lower Saxony

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This is a list of geographical features in the state of Lower Saxony, Germany. Harz Weserbergland Aller Bode Elbe Ems Fulda Hunte Leine Neetze Oker Oste...

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Armorial of Germany

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Bremen Coat of arms of Hamburg Coat of arms of Hesse Coat of arms of Lower Saxony Coat of arms of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Coat of arms of North Rhine-Westphalia...

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including Lower Saxony (which includes central parts of the original Saxon homeland known as Old Saxony), Saxony in Upper Saxony, as well as Saxony-Anhalt...

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History of Saxony

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The history of Saxony began with a small tribe living on the North Sea between the Elbe and Eider River in what is now Holstein. The name of this tribe...

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Lower Saxony State Prize

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The Lower Saxony State Prize (German: Niedersächsischer Staatspreis) has been awarded by the State of Lower Saxony since 2002. From 1978 to 1999 it was...

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List of German dishes

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other parts of Saxony. The cuisine of Upper Lusatia also differs from central Saxony and is more related to the (former) cuisines of Lower Silesia and Northern...

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(German: Hansestadt Stade, Low German: Hansestadt Stood) is a city in Lower Saxony in northern Germany. First mentioned in records in 934, it is the seat...

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