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List of active separatist movements in Europe information


List of active separatist movements in Europe
Supporters of Catalan independence in Barcelona in October 2019

This is a list of currently active separatist movements in Europe. Separatism often refers to full political secession,[1][2][3] though separatist movements may seek nothing more than greater autonomy or to be recognised as a national minority.[4]

What is and is not considered an autonomist or secessionist movement is sometimes contentious. Entries on this list must meet three criteria:

  1. They are active movements with active members;
  2. They are seeking greater autonomy or self-determination for a geographic region (as opposed to personal autonomy);
  3. They are citizens/people of the conflict area and do not come from another country.

Under each region listed is one or more of the following:

  • De facto state (de facto entity): for unrecognized regions with de facto autonomy;
  • Proposed state: proposed name for a seceding sovereign state;
  • Proposed autonomous area: for movements towards greater autonomy for an area but not outright secession;
    • De facto autonomous government: for governments with de facto autonomous control over a region;
    • Government-in-exile: for a government based outside of the region in question, with or without control;
    • Political party (or parties): for political parties involved in a political system to push for autonomy or secession;
    • Militant organisation(s): for armed organisations;
    • Advocacy group(s): for non-belligerent, non-politically participatory entities;
    • Ethnic/ethno-religious/racial/regional/religious group(s).

Various ethnic groups in Europe are seeking greater autonomy or independence. In the European Union (EU), several of these groups are members of the European Free Alliance (EFA). In some cases, the group seeks to unify into a different state – in cases where this does not involve the creation of a new state entity, this is considered to be irredentism. Analogous irredentist movements are included in the list of active irredentist movements.

  1. ^ "Separatism", Free Dictionary
  2. ^ Merriam; Webster, "Separatism", Dictionary
  3. ^ "Separatism", The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English, Encyclopedia, 2008
  4. ^ Harris, Jerry (2009). The Nation in the Global Era Conflict and Transformation. Brill. p. 320. ISBN 978-90-04-17690-4.

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