Global Information

General properties Layout of the LHC complex Synchrotron proton, heavy ion collider 6.8 TeV per beam (13.6 TeV collision energy) 1×1034/(cm2⋅s) 26,659 metres(16.565 miles) Near Geneva, Switzerland; across the border of France and Switzerland. Mostly in France. .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}46°14′06″N 06°02′42″E﻿ / ﻿46.23500°N 6.04500°ECoordinates: 46°14′06″N 06°02′42″E﻿ / ﻿46.23500°N 6.04500°E CERN 2010 – present Large Electron–Positron Collider
LHC experiments A Toroidal LHC Apparatus Compact Muon Solenoid LHC-beauty A Large Ion Collider Experiment Total Cross Section, Elastic Scattering and Diffraction Dissociation LHC-forward Monopole and Exotics Detector At the LHC ForwArd Search ExpeRiment Scattering and Neutrino Detector Linear accelerators for protons (Linac 4) and lead (Linac 3) Proton Synchrotron Booster Proton Synchrotron Super Proton Synchrotron
Current particle and nuclear facilities Accelerates protons and heavy ions Accelerates ions Accelerates protons and ions Accelerates protons Accelerates protons or ions Injects heavy ions into LEIR Accelerates ions Decelerates antiprotons Decelerates antiprotons Produces radioactive ion beams

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world's largest and highest-energy particle collider.[1][2] It was built by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) between 1998 and 2008 in collaboration with over 10,000 scientists and hundreds of universities and laboratories, as well as more than 100 countries.[3] It lies in a tunnel 27 kilometres (17 mi) in circumference and as deep as 175 metres (574 ft) beneath the France–Switzerland border near Geneva.

The first collisions were achieved in 2010 at an energy of 3.5 teraelectronvolts (TeV) per beam, about four times the previous world record.[4][5] After upgrades it reached 6.5 TeV per beam (13 TeV total collision energy).[6][7][8][9] At the end of 2018, it was shut down for three years for further upgrades.

The collider has four crossing points where the accelerated particles collide. Seven detectors, each designed to detect different phenomena, are positioned around the crossing points. The LHC primarily collides proton beams, but it can also accelerate beams of heavy ions: lead–lead collisions and proton–lead collisions are typically performed for one month a year.

The LHC's goal is to allow physicists to test the predictions of different theories of particle physics, including measuring the properties of the Higgs boson,[10] searching for the large family of new particles predicted by supersymmetric theories,[11] and other unresolved questions in particle physics.

1. ^ "The Large Hadron Collider". CERN.
2. ^ Joel Achenbach (March 2012). "The God Particle". National Geographic Magazine. Retrieved 25 February 2008.
3. ^ Highfield, Roger (16 September 2008). "Large Hadron Collider: Thirteen ways to change the world". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 24 September 2009. Retrieved 10 October 2008.
4. ^ "CERN LHC sees high-energy success". BBC News. 30 March 2010. Retrieved 30 March 2010.
5. ^ "LHC to run at 4 TeV per beam in 2012". Media and Press Relations (Press release). CERN. 13 February 2012.
6. ^ Cite error: The named reference BBC was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
7. ^ O'Luanaigh, Cian. "Proton beams are back in the LHC". CERN. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
8. ^ Rincon, Paul (3 June 2015). "Large Hadron Collider turns on 'data tap'". Retrieved 28 August 2015.
9. ^ Webb, Jonathan (21 May 2015). "LHC smashes energy record with test collisions". Retrieved 28 August 2015.
10. ^ "Missing Higgs". CERN. 2008. Retrieved 10 October 2008.
11. ^ "Towards a superforce". CERN. 2008. Retrieved 10 October 2008.

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