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Islamist insurgency in the Sahel information


Islamist insurgency in the Sahel
Part of the war on terror and spillover of the Insurgency in the Maghreb (2002–present)

Map showing areas where the Islamic State in the Greater Sahara operates
Date15 February 2011 – present
(13 years, 2 months)
Location
Sahel (mainly Mali, Burkina Faso and Niger)
Status

Ongoing

  • Mali War: Tuareg rebels and allied Islamists overrun Northern Mali in 2012 until pushed back by a French intervention
  • Jihadist insurgency in Burkina Faso: Mali War spills over into Burkina Faso by 2015 as Islamists capture about 40% of Burkinabé territory
  • Boko Haram insurgency arises in Nigeria and extends in Chad, Niger, and Cameroon
  • Jihadist insurgency in Niger
  • French and American intervention on behalf of governments
  • Rise of the coup belt
Belligerents

Local governments:
Islamist insurgency in the Sahel Mali
Islamist insurgency in the Sahel Burkina Faso
Islamist insurgency in the Sahel Niger[1]
Islamist insurgency in the Sahel Nigeria
Islamist insurgency in the Sahel Cameroon
Islamist insurgency in the Sahel Chad[2]
Islamist insurgency in the Sahel Togo[3]
Islamist insurgency in the Sahel Ghana[4]
Islamist insurgency in the Sahel Ivory Coast[5]
Islamist insurgency in the Sahel Benin[6]


United Nations MINUSMA[2] (2013–2023)
Islamist insurgency in the Sahel AFISMA[7] (from 2013)


Supported by:
  • Islamist insurgency in the Sahel France[2][8][9]
  • Islamist insurgency in the Sahel United Kingdom[10][11][12]
  • Islamist insurgency in the Sahel United States[13]
  • Islamist insurgency in the Sahel Germany[14]
  • Islamist insurgency in the Sahel Sweden[15]
  • Islamist insurgency in the Sahel Czech Republic[16]
  • Islamist insurgency in the Sahel Netherlands[17]
  • Islamist insurgency in the Sahel Denmark[18]
  • Islamist insurgency in the Sahel Turkey[19][20]

    Russia Wagner Group[21]

Islamist insurgency in the Sahel Al-Qaeda and allies: AQIM (from 2007)
Islamist insurgency in the Sahel JNIM (from 2017)

  • Islamist insurgency in the Sahel Al-Mourabitoun (2013–17)
  • Islamist insurgency in the Sahel Ansar Dine (2012–17)
  • Islamist insurgency in the Sahel MUJAO (2011–13)
  • Islamist insurgency in the Sahel Macina Liberation Front (2015–17)

Islamist insurgency in the Sahel Ansar al-Sharia of Mali (2012–present)
Islamist insurgency in the Sahel Ansar ul Islam (2016–present)
Islamist insurgency in the Sahel Al-Mulathameen
Islamist insurgency in the Sahel Al-Shabaab
Islamist insurgency in the Sahel Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat remnants[2]
Islamist insurgency in the Sahel Ansar al-Sharia of Mauritania
Islamist insurgency in the Sahel National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (2012)


Islamic State IS-GS
Islamic State Boko Haram (from 2006, partially aligned with ISIL since 2015)[22][23]
Islamic State ISWAP
Islamist insurgency in the Sahel Ansaru


Islamic Movement of Nigeria
Commanders and leaders
Unknown Unknown
Strength

Total armed forces:
Islamist insurgency in the Sahel Mali: 7,350
Islamist insurgency in the Sahel AFISMA: 2,900[7]
Islamist insurgency in the Sahel Niger: 12,000
Islamist insurgency in the Sahel Chad: 30,350
Islamist insurgency in the Sahel France: 5,100 deployed in the Sahel[8][9]
Supported by:

Islamist insurgency in the Sahel United States: 1,325+ advisors, trainers[13][24]

AQIM (former GSPC): 1,000[2][25][26]–4,000[27]
Islamist insurgency in the Sahel MUJAO: ~500[7]
Al-Mourabitoun: Fewer than 100[28]
Ansar Dine: 300[29]–10,000[7]


Islamist insurgency in the Sahel Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

  • ISWAP: 6,000[30]–20,000[31][32]
Casualties and losses
Mali: 3,300+ killed (2012–17)[33]

An Islamist insurgency has been ongoing in the Sahel region of West Africa since the 2011 Arab Spring. In particular, the intensive conflict in the three countries of Mali, Niger and Burkina Faso has been referred to as the Sahel War.

The conflict is generally seen to have begun during the early stages of the Mali War, which itself was seen as a spillover conflict of the Insurgency in the Maghreb. As Islamist Tuareg rebels overran Mali in 2012, a concurrent insurgency in Nigeria, led by Boko Haram, began to spread to nearby countries. By 2015, the Mali war had spread to Burkina Faso and Niger, which led to heavy fighting and humanitarian crises in both countries. The conflict in Nigeria also reached a climax before a coalition offensive forced insurgents into remission. By 2019, the effects of the region-wide conflict began to accelerate due to resentment within the populace and due to alleged inability to handle the conflict. These views led to a series of coups in Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Sudan, Chad and Guinea, which led to the region being labeled a 'coup belt'.

  1. ^ "Niger army hunts for Al-Qaeda after clash". AFP. 15 June 2011. Archived from the original on 4 March 2014. Retrieved 3 June 2022.
  2. ^ a b c d e "Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM)". Council on Foreign Relations. Archived from the original on 11 May 2015. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
  3. ^ Zodzi, John (13 November 2021). "Togo says repelled possible militant attack near Burkina Faso border". National Post.
  4. ^ https://www.kas.de/documents/261825/16928652/The+jihadist+threat+in+northern+Ghana+and+Togo.pdf/ [bare URL]
  5. ^ "Concern Grows About Jihadi Activity in Ivory Coast".
  6. ^ "Au Bénin, l'armée en état d'alerte après une attaque djihadiste". La Croix. 3 December 2021. Archived from the original on 2022-02-11. Retrieved 2022-06-03.
  7. ^ a b c d Salomé Legrand (2013-01-14). "Qui sont les islamistes à qui la France a déclaré la guerre ?". Francetvinfo.fr. Archived from the original on 2013-03-07. Retrieved 2013-11-22.
  8. ^ a b "4600 soldats français mobilisés". Ledauphine.com. 2013-01-31. Archived from the original on 2015-04-02. Retrieved 2013-11-22.
  9. ^ a b "François Hollande's African adventures: The French are reorganising security in an increasingly troubled region". Economist. Archived from the original on 2018-01-03. Retrieved 2022-06-03.
  10. ^ "US Starts Anti-Al-Qaeda Military Exercise in Sahara". BBC. 3 May 2010. Archived from the original on 7 October 2018. Retrieved 3 June 2022.
  11. ^ "Britain Signals Maghreb Push with Anti-Terror Help". Reuters Africa. 18 October 2011. Archived from the original on December 5, 2014.
  12. ^ "War on Isis: British Special Forces ambushed by Islamic State suicide bombers in Libya". International Business Times. 1 May 2016. Archived from the original on 16 August 2021. Retrieved 3 June 2022.
  13. ^ a b "US, Mali Armies Kick off Exercise Atlas Accord; Postpone Exercise Flintlock". Defense Web. 13 February 2012. Archived from the original on 18 May 2013. Retrieved 3 June 2022.
  14. ^ Pelz, Daniel (29 January 2017). "Bundeswehr in Mali: dangerous, but necessary?". DW. Retrieved 10 March 2024.
  15. ^ "Swedish Special Forces to Mali". Försvarsmakten. Archived from the original on 2020-12-06. Retrieved 2020-11-18.
  16. ^ Maclean, Ruth; O'Reilly, Finbarr (March 29, 2020). "Crisis in the Sahel Becoming France's Forever War". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 12, 2022. Retrieved June 3, 2022.
  17. ^ "Flintlock 11 Kicks off February 21 in Senegal". AFRICOM. 3 February 2011. Archived from the original on 24 December 2012.
  18. ^ "The Danish effort in the Sahel region (MINUSMA and Operation Barkhane)". fmn.dk. Archived from the original on 2020-09-26. Retrieved 2020-12-25.
  19. ^ "Turkey extends troops deployment in Mali, CAR". Yeni Safak. 9 October 2019. Retrieved 30 July 2023.
  20. ^ "Turkey extends its military presence in Africa". Atalayar. 22 October 2021. Retrieved 30 July 2023.
  21. ^ "Mali receives helicopters and weapons from Russia". Al Jazeera. October 1, 2021. Archived from the original on April 19, 2022. Retrieved June 3, 2022.
  22. ^ Cite error: The named reference ibtimes was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  23. ^ "Niger attacked by both al-Qaeda and Boko Haram". BBC News. 2016-03-18. Archived from the original on 2016-04-15. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
  24. ^ African Lion 12 ready to roar: marine forces in Africa conducts final planning conference, DVIDs hub, archived from the original on 2014-03-05, retrieved 2022-06-03
  25. ^ Freeman, Colin (12 June 2014). "Al-Qaeda map: Isis, Boko Haram and other affiliates' strongholds across Africa and Asia". Archived from the original on 13 June 2021. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
  26. ^ "Profile: Al-Qaeda in North Africa". BBC News. 2013-01-17. Archived from the original on 2021-06-06. Retrieved 16 March 2016.
  27. ^ "Mauritania Killings May be New Qaeda Chapter". Reuters. 11 February 2008. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 3 June 2022.
  28. ^ "Mali: qui sont les nouveaux chefs des katibas jihadistes?". Radio France Internationale. 14 May 2014. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 19 May 2014.
  29. ^ Sofia Bouderbala (2 April 2012). "Al-Qaeda unlikely to profit from Mali rebellion: experts". The Daily Star. Archived from the original on 2 April 2012. Retrieved 3 April 2012.
  30. ^ "Nigeria's Boko Haram has up to 6,000 hardcore militants: U.S. officials". Reuters. 2015-02-06. Archived from the original on 2022-06-03. Retrieved 2022-06-03.
  31. ^ "Boko Haram HQ Gwoza in Nigeria 'retaken'". BBC News. 2015-03-27. Archived from the original on 2015-04-25. Retrieved 2022-06-03.
  32. ^ "Boko Haram at a glance". Amnesty International. Archived from the original on 28 June 2015. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
  33. ^ "American commandos face complicated mission in Mali". Military Times. 18 September 2017. Archived from the original on 8 March 2021. Retrieved 30 October 2017.

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