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Industrial Revolution information


Industrial Revolution
c. 1760 – c. 1840
Powerloom weaving in 1835.jpg
A Roberts loom in a weaving shed in 1835
Location
  • Western Europe
  • North America
Key events
  • Mechanized textile production
  • Canal construction
  • Steam engine
  • Factory system
  • Iron production increase
← Preceded by
Proto-industrialization
Followed by →
Second Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe, and the United States, that occurred during the period from around 1760 to about 1820–1840.[1] This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, the increasing use of steam power and water power, the development of machine tools and the rise of the mechanized factory system. Output greatly increased, and a result was an unprecedented rise in population and in the rate of population growth.

Textiles were the dominant industry of the Industrial Revolution in terms of employment, value of output and capital invested. The textile industry was also the first to use modern production methods.[2]: 40 

The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain, and many of the technological and architectural innovations were of British origin.[3][4] By the mid-18th century, Britain was the world's leading commercial nation,[5] controlling a global trading empire with colonies in North America and the Caribbean. Britain had major military and political hegemony on the Indian subcontinent; particularly with the proto-industrialised Mughal Bengal, through the activities of the East India Company.[6][7][8][9] The development of trade and the rise of business were among the major causes of the Industrial Revolution.[2]: 15 

The Industrial Revolution marked a major turning point in history. Comparable only to humanity's adoption of agriculture with respect to material advancement,[10] the Industrial Revolution influenced in some way almost every aspect of daily life. In particular, average income and population began to exhibit unprecedented sustained growth. Some economists have said the most important effect of the Industrial Revolution was that the standard of living for the general population in the western world began to increase consistently for the first time in history, although others have said that it did not begin to meaningfully improve until the late 19th and 20th centuries.[11][12][13]

GDP per capita was broadly stable before the Industrial Revolution and the emergence of the modern capitalist economy,[14] while the Industrial Revolution began an era of per-capita economic growth in capitalist economies.[15] Economic historians are in agreement that the onset of the Industrial Revolution is the most important event in human history since the domestication of animals and plants.[16]

The precise start and end of the Industrial Revolution is still debated among historians, as is the pace of economic and social changes.[17][18][19][20] Eric Hobsbawm held that the Industrial Revolution began in Britain in the 1780s and was not fully felt until the 1830s or 1840s,[17] while T. S. Ashton held that it occurred roughly between 1760 and 1830.[18] Rapid industrialization first began in Britain, starting with mechanized spinning in the 1780s,[21] with high rates of growth in steam power and iron production occurring after 1800. Mechanized textile production spread from Great Britain to continental Europe and the United States in the early 19th century, with important centres of textiles, iron and coal emerging in Belgium and the United States and later textiles in France.[2]

An economic recession occurred from the late 1830s to the early 1840s when the adoption of the Industrial Revolution's early innovations, such as mechanized spinning and weaving, slowed and their markets matured. Innovations developed late in the period, such as the increasing adoption of locomotives, steamboats and steamships and hot blast iron smelting. New technologies, such as the electrical telegraph, widely introduced in the 1840s and 1850s, were not powerful enough to drive high rates of growth. Rapid economic growth began to occur after 1870, springing from a new group of innovations in what has been called the Second Industrial Revolution. These innovations included new steel making processes, mass-production, assembly lines, electrical grid systems, the large-scale manufacture of machine tools, and the use of increasingly advanced machinery in steam-powered factories.[2][22][23][24]

  1. ^ "Industrial History of European Countries". European Route of Industrial Heritage. Council of Europe. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  2. ^ a b c d Landes, David S. (1969). The Unbound Prometheus. Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge. ISBN 978-0521094184.
  3. ^ Horn, Jeff; Rosenband, Leonard; Smith, Merritt (2010). Reconceptualizing the Industrial Revolution. Cambridge MA, London: MIT Press. ISBN 978-0262515627.
  4. ^ E. Anthony Wrigley, "Reconsidering the Industrial Revolution: England and Wales." Journal of Interdisciplinary History 49.01 (2018): 9–42.
  5. ^ Reisman, George (1998). Capitalism: A complete understanding of the nature and value of human economic life. Jameson Books. p. 127. ISBN 978-0915463732.
  6. ^ Tong, Junie T. (2016). Finance and Society in 21st Century China: Chinese Culture Versus Western Markets. CRC Press. p. 151. ISBN 978-1317135227.
  7. ^ Esposito, John L., ed. (2004). The Islamic World: Past and Present. Vol. 1: Abba – Hist. Oxford University Press. p. 174. ISBN 978-0195165203.
  8. ^ Ray, Indrajit (2011). Bengal Industries and the British Industrial Revolution (1757–1857). Routledge. pp. 7–10. ISBN 978-1136825521.
  9. ^ Cite error: The named reference David_Landes_1999 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  10. ^ North, Douglass C.; Thomas, Robert Paul (May 1977). "The First Economic Revolution". The Economic History Review. Wiley on behalf of the Economic History Society. 30 (2): 229–230. doi:10.2307/2595144. JSTOR 2595144. Retrieved 6 June 2022.
  11. ^ Cite error: The named reference Lectures on Economic Growth was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  12. ^ Cite error: The named reference Feinstein2014 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  13. ^ Cite error: The named reference SzreterMooney2014 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  14. ^ Cite error: The named reference The Industrial Revolution was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  15. ^ Cite error: The named reference The Industrial Revolution Past and Future was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  16. ^ Cite error: The named reference ReviewOfCambridge was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  17. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference revolution was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  18. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference google1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  19. ^ Cite error: The named reference Rehabilitating the Industrial Revolution was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  20. ^ Cite error: The named reference lorenzen was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  21. ^ Gupta, Bishnupriya. "Cotton Textiles and the Great Divergence: Lancashire, India and Shifting Competitive Advantage, 1600–1850" (PDF). International Institute of Social History. Department of Economics, University of Warwick. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
  22. ^ Taylor, George Rogers (1951). The Transportation Revolution, 1815–1860. ISBN 978-0873321013.
  23. ^ Cite error: The named reference Roe1916 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  24. ^ Cite error: The named reference Hunter_1985 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).

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