Global Information Lookup Global Information

History of Islam information

Page from the Sanaa manuscript. The "subtexts" revealed using UV light are very different from today's standard edition of the Quran. The German scholar of Quranic palaeography Gerd R. Puin affirms that these textual variants indicate an evolving text.[1] A similar view has been expressed by the British historian of Near Eastern studies Lawrence Conrad regarding the early biographies of Muhammad; according to him, Islamic views on the birth date of Muhammad until the 8th century CE had a diversity of 85 years span.[2]

The history of Islam concerns the political, social, economic, military, and cultural developments of the Islamic civilization. Most historians[3] believe that Islam originated with Muhammad's mission in Mecca and Medina at the start of the 7th century CE,[4][5] although Muslims regard this time as a return to the original faith passed down by the Abrahamic prophets, such as Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, David, Solomon, and Jesus, with the submission (Islām) to the will of God.[6][7][8]

According to the traditional account,[4][5][9] the Islamic prophet Muhammad began receiving what Muslims consider to be divine revelations in 610 CE, calling for submission to the one God, preparation for the imminent Last Judgement, and charity for the poor and needy.[7][Note 1] As Muhammad’s message began to attract followers (the ṣaḥāba) he also met with increasing hostility and persecution from Meccan elites.[7][Note 2] In 622 CE Muhammad migrated to the city of Yathrib (now known as Medina), where he began to unify the tribes of Arabia under Islam,[11] returning to Mecca to take control in 630[12][13] and order the destruction of all pagan idols.[14][15] By the time he died in about 11 AH (632 CE), almost all the tribes of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam,[16] but disagreement broke out over who would succeed him as leader of the Muslim community during the Rāshidūn Caliphate.[4][17][18][19]

The early Muslim conquests were responsible for the spread of Islam.[4][5][9][17] By the 8th century CE, the Umayyad Caliphate extended from Muslim Iberia in the west to the Indus River in the east. Polities such as those ruled by the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates (in the Middle East and later in Spain and Southern Italy), the Fatimids, Seljuks, Ayyubids, and Mamluks were among the most influential powers in the world. Highly Persianized empires built by the Samanids, Ghaznavids, and Ghurids significantly contributed to technological and administrative developments. The Islamic Golden Age gave rise to many centers of culture and science and produced notable polymaths, astronomers, mathematicians, physicians, and philosophers during the Middle Ages.[5]

By the early 13th century, the Delhi Sultanate conquered the northern Indian subcontinent, while Turkic dynasties like the Sultanate of Rum and Artuqids conquered much of Anatolia from the Byzantine Empire throughout the 11th and 12th centuries. In the 13th and 14th centuries, destructive Mongol invasions and those of Tamerlane (Timur) from the east, along with the loss of population due to the Black Death, greatly weakened the traditional centers of the Muslim world, stretching from Persia to Egypt, but saw the emergence of the Timurid Renaissance and major global economic powers such as the Mali Empire in West Africa and the Bengal Sultanate in South Asia.[20][21] Following the deportation and enslavement of the Muslim Moors from the Emirate of Sicily and other Italian territories,[22] the Islamic Iberia was gradually conquered by Christian forces during the Reconquista. Nonetheless, in the early modern period, the states of the Age of the Islamic Gunpowders—Ottoman Turkey, Mughal India, and Safavid Iran—emerged as world powers.

During the 19th and early 20th centuries, most of the Muslim world fell under the influence or direct control of the European Great Powers.[5] Some of their efforts to win independence and build modern nation-states over the course of the last two centuries continue to reverberate to the present day, as well as fuel conflict-zones in regions such as Palestine, Kashmir, Xinjiang, Chechnya, Central Africa, Bosnia, and Myanmar. The oil boom stabilized the Arab States of the Gulf Cooperation Council (comprising Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates), making them the world's largest oil producers and exporters, which focus on capitalism, free trade, and tourism.[23][24]

  1. ^ Lester, Toby (1 January 1999). "What Is the Koran?". The Atlantic. Washington, D.C. ISSN 2151-9463. OCLC 936540106. Archived from the original on 25 August 2012. Retrieved 16 May 2022.
  2. ^ Conrad, Lawrence (June 1987). "Abraha and Muhammad: some observations apropos of chronology and literary topoi in the early Arabic historical tradition". Bulletin of the School of Oriental & African Studies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 50 (2): 225–240. doi:10.1017/S0041977X00049016. ISSN 1474-0699. S2CID 162350288.
  3. ^ Watt, W. Montgomery (2003). Islam and the Integration of Society. Psychology Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-415-17587-6.
  4. ^ a b c d van Ess, Josef (2017). "Setting the Seal on Prophecy". Theology and Society in the Second and Third Centuries of the Hijra, Volume 1: A History of Religious Thought in Early Islam. Handbook of Oriental Studies. Section 1: The Near and Middle East. Vol. 116/1. Translated by O'Kane, John. Leiden and Boston: Brill Publishers. pp. 3–7. doi:10.1163/9789004323384_002. ISBN 978-90-04-32338-4. ISSN 0169-9423.
  5. ^ a b c d e Zimney, Michelle (2009). "Introduction – What Is Islam?". In Campo, Juan E. (ed.). Encyclopedia of Islam. Encyclopedia of World Religions. New York City: Facts On File. pp. xxi–xxxii. ISBN 978-0-8160-5454-1. LCCN 2008005621.
  6. ^ Esposito, John L. (2016) [1988]. Islam: The Straight Path (Updated 5th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 9–12. ISBN 978-0-19-063215-1. S2CID 153364691.
  7. ^ a b c Donner, Fred M. (2000) [1999]. "Muhammad and the Caliphate: Political History of the Islamic Empire Up to the Mongol Conquest". In Esposito, John L. (ed.). The Oxford History of Islam. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 5–10. ISBN 0-19-510799-3. OCLC 40838649.
  8. ^ Peters, F. E. (2003). Islam: A Guide for Jews and Christians. Princeton, New Jersey and Woodstock, Oxfordshire: Princeton University Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-691-11553-5.
  9. ^ a b Lewis, Bernard (1995). "Part III: The Dawn and Noon of Islam – Origins". The Middle East: A Brief History of the Last 2,000 Years. New York: Scribner. pp. 51–58. ISBN 978-0-684-83280-7. OCLC 34190629.
  10. ^ a b Buhl, F.; Ehlert, Trude; Noth, A.; Schimmel, Annemarie; Welch, A. T. (2012) [1993]. "Muḥammad". In Bearman, P. J.; Bianquis, Th.; Bosworth, C. E.; van Donzel, E. J.; Heinrichs, W. P. (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Leiden and Boston: Brill Publishers. pp. 360–376. doi:10.1163/1573-3912_islam_COM_0780. ISBN 978-90-04-16121-4.
  11. ^ Campo (2009), "Muhammad", Encyclopedia of Islam, p. 494
  12. ^ Ramadan, Tariq (2007). In the Footsteps of the Prophet: Lessons from the Life of Muhammad. New York City: Oxford University Press. p. 178. ISBN 978-0-19-530880-8.
  13. ^ Husayn Haykal, Muhammad (2008). The Life of Muhammad. Selangor: Islamic Book Trust. pp. 438–9 & 441. ISBN 978-983-9154-17-7.
  14. ^ Hitti, Philip Khuri (1946). History of the Arabs. London: Macmillan and Co. p. 118.
  15. ^ Ramadan, Tariq (2007). In the Footsteps of the Prophet: Lessons from the Life of Muhammad. New York City: Oxford University Press. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-19-530880-8.
  16. ^ Richard Foltz, "Internationalization of Islam", Encarta Historical Essays.
  17. ^ a b Polk, William R. (2018). "The Caliphate and the Conquests". Crusade and Jihad: The Thousand-Year War Between the Muslim World and the Global North. The Henry L. Stimson Lectures Series. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. pp. 21–30. doi:10.2307/j.ctv1bvnfdq.7. ISBN 978-0-300-22290-6. JSTOR j.ctv1bvnfdq.7. LCCN 2017942543.
  18. ^ Izutsu, Toshihiko (2006) [1965]. "The Infidel (Kāfir): The Khārijites and the origin of the problem". The Concept of Belief in Islamic Theology: A Semantic Analysis of Imān and Islām. Tokyo: Keio Institute of Cultural and Linguistic Studies at Keio University. pp. 1–20. ISBN 983-9154-70-2.
  19. ^ Lewis, Bernard (1995). "Part IV: Cross-Sections – The State". The Middle East: A Brief History of the Last 2,000 Years. New York: Scribner. p. 139. ISBN 978-0-684-83280-7. OCLC 34190629.
  20. ^ Nanda, J. N (2005). Bengal: the unique state. Concept Publishing Company. p. 10. 2005. ISBN 978-81-8069-149-2. Bengal [...] was rich in the production and export of grain, salt, fruit, liquors and wines, precious metals and ornaments besides the output of its handlooms in silk and cotton. Europe referred to Bengal as the richest country to trade with.
  21. ^ Imperato, Pascal James; Imperato, Gavin H. (25 April 2008). Historical Dictionary of Mali. Scarecrow Press. p. 201. ISBN 978-0-8108-6402-3.
  22. ^ Julie Taylor, Muslims in Medieval Italy: The Colony at Lucera, (Rowman & Littlefield Inc., 2003), 18.
  23. ^ Sampler & Eigner (2008). Sand to Silicon: Going Global. UAE: Motivate. p. 15. ISBN 978-1-86063-254-9.
  24. ^ "International – U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)".

Cite error: There are <ref group=Note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=Note}} template (see the help page).

and 28 Related for: History of Islam information

Request time (Page generated in 1.0467 seconds.)

History of Islam

Last Update:

The history of Islam concerns the political, social, economic, military, and cultural developments of the Islamic civilization. Most historians believe...

Word Count : 28846

Timeline of Islamic history

Last Update:

timeline of Islamic history relates the Gregorian and Islamic calendars in the history of Islam. This timeline starts with the lifetime of Muhammad,...

Word Count : 380

History of Islam in China

Last Update:

The history of Islam in China dates back to 1,300 years ago. Currently, Chinese Muslims are a minority group in China, representing between 0.45% to 1...

Word Count : 5701

History of Shia Islam

Last Update:

Shi‘a Islam, also known as Shi‘ite Islam or Shia, is the second largest branch of Islam after Sunni Islam. Shias adhere to the teachings of Muhammad and...

Word Count : 4498

The Cambridge History of Islam

Last Update:

The Cambridge History of Islam is a two volume history of Islam published by Cambridge University Press in 1970 and edited by Peter Holt, Ann K.S. Lambton...

Word Count : 341

Islam in India

Last Update:

Islam is India's second-largest religion, with 14.2% of the country's population, or approximately 172.2 million people, identifying as adherents of Islam...

Word Count : 21066


Last Update:

Islam (/ˈɪzlɑːm/; Arabic: ٱلْإِسْلَام‎, romanized: al-Islām, lit. 'submission [to the will of God]') is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion centered on...

Word Count : 23122

Islam in Africa

Last Update:

thousands of Berbers to accept Islam. The History of Islam in Africa and accounts of how the religion spread, especially in North and the Horn of Africa...

Word Count : 3606

The New Cambridge History of Islam

Last Update:

Cambridge History of Islam is a six volume history of Islam published by Cambridge University Press in 2010. The general editor is Michael Cook. The history replaced...

Word Count : 265

Shia Islam

Last Update:

Shia Islam (/ˈʃiːə/) is the second-largest branch of Islam. It holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib as his successor (khalīfa)...

Word Count : 14127

History of Iran

Last Update:

dynasty, which set Shia Islam as the empire's official religion, marking one of the most important turning points in the history of Islam. Functioning again...

Word Count : 21447

Islam in Palestine

Last Update:

Islam is a major religion in Palestine, being the religion of the majority of the Palestinian population. Muslims comprise 85% of the population of the...

Word Count : 5023

Islamic studies

Last Update:

historical study of Islam, Islamic civilization, history of the Muslim world, historiography, Islamic law, Islamic theology and Islamic philosophy. Specialists...

Word Count : 1992

History of Islam in southern Italy

Last Update:

The history of Islam in Sicily and southern Italy began with the first Arab settlement in Sicily, at Mazara, which was captured in 827. The subsequent...

Word Count : 7127

Islamic schools and branches

Last Update:

Islamic schools and branches have different understandings of Islam. There are many different sects or denominations, schools of Islamic jurisprudence...

Word Count : 12664

History of the Islamic State

Last Update:

The origins of the Islamic State group can be traced back to three main organizations. Earliest of these was the "Jamāʻat al-Tawḥīd wa-al-Jihād" (transl...

Word Count : 8780

Islamic Golden Age

Last Update:

The Islamic Golden Age was a period of scientific, economic and cultural flourishing in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century...

Word Count : 13550

Islam in Japan

Last Update:

history of Islam in Japan is relatively brief in relation to the religion's longstanding presence in other nearby countries, and forms a minority of its...

Word Count : 3428

Islam in Indonesia

Last Update:

Islam is the largest religion in Indonesia, with 87% of the Indonesian population identifying themselves as Muslims, based on civil registry data in 2022...

Word Count : 10388

Spread of Islam

Last Update:

spread of Islam spans almost 1,500 years. The early Muslim conquests that occurred following the death of Muhammad in 632 CE led to the creation of the caliphates...

Word Count : 10341

Muhammad in Islam

Last Update:

seal of the messengers and prophets of God in all of the main branches of Islam. Muslims believe that the Quran, the central religious text of Islam, was...

Word Count : 16653

Timeline of early Islamic history

Last Update:

is a timeline of the early history of Islam during the lifetime of Muhammad. The information provided in this article is based on Islamic oral tradition...

Word Count : 2405

Islam in Iran

Last Update:

Islam entered Iran (or "Persia") with the Muslim conquest (637–651) and led to the end of the Sasanian Empire and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian...

Word Count : 8030

Islam in Bangladesh

Last Update:

Islam is the largest and the state religion of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. According to the 2022 census, Bangladesh had a population of about...

Word Count : 5052

Islam in Russia

Last Update:

from the time of Catherine the Great, who sponsored Islamic clerics and scholarship through the Orenburg Assembly. The history of Islam and Russia encompasses...

Word Count : 5564

Islam in Myanmar

Last Update:

Islam is a minority religion in Myanmar, practised by about 2.1% of the population, according to the 2014 Myanmar official statistics. In the early Bagan...

Word Count : 11497

Islam in Turkey

Last Update:

Islam is the most practiced religion in Turkey. As much as 90% of the population follows the Sunni Madhab of Islam. Most Turkish Sunni Muslims belong to...

Word Count : 5604

Islam in Algeria

Last Update:

Islam is the majority and state religion in Algeria. The vast majority of citizens are Sunni Muslims belonging to Maliki school of jurisprudence, with...

Word Count : 1943

PDF Search Engine ©