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Ghana information

Republic of Ghana
Flag of Ghana
Coat of arms of Ghana
Coat of arms
Motto: "Freedom and Justice"
Anthem: "God Bless Our Homeland Ghana"
Location of Ghana
and largest city
05°33′18″N 00°11′33″W / 5.55500°N 0.19250°W / 5.55500; -0.19250
Official languagesEnglish[1][2]
Ethnic groups
(2021 census[3])
  • 45.7% Akan
  • 18.5% Mole-Dagbon
  • 12.8% Ewe
  • 7.1% Ga-Adangbe
  • 6.4% Gurma
  • 3.2% Guan
  • 2.7% Gurunsi
  • 2.0% Mande
  • 1.6% other / unspecified
(2021 census[3])
    • 71.3% Christianity
      • 49.0% Protestantism
      • 22.3% other Christian
  • 19.9% Islam
  • 3.2% traditional faiths
  • 1.1% no religion
  • 4.5% other / unspecified
GovernmentUnitary presidential republic
• President
Nana Akufo-Addo
• Vice-President
Mahamudu Bawumia
• Speaker of Parliament
Alban Bagbin
• Chief Justice
Gertrude Tokornoo
Independence from the United Kingdom
• Commonwealth realm
6 March 1957
• Republic
1 July 1960
• Total
239,567[4] km2 (92,497 sq mi) (80th)
• Water (%)
4.61 (11,000 km2; 4,247 mi2)
• 2024 estimate
34,589,092[5] (48th)
• Density
101.5/km2 (262.9/sq mi) (66th)
GDP (PPP)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $227.189 billion[6] (68th)
• Per capita
Increase $6,905[6] (136th)
GDP (nominal)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $76.628 billion[6] (89th)
• Per capita
Increase $2,328[6] (149th)
Gini (2024)Steady 44[7]
HDI (2022)Increase 0.602[8]
medium (145th)
CurrencyCedi (GHS)
Time zoneUTC (GMT)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+233
ISO 3166 codeGH

Ghana,[a] officially the Republic of Ghana, is a country in West Africa. It lies adjacent to the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean to the south, sharing a border with Ivory Coast in the west, Burkina Faso in the north, and Togo in the east. Ghana covers an area of 239,567 km2 (92,497 sq mi), spanning diverse biomes that range from coastal savannas to tropical rainforests. With nearly 35 million inhabitants, Ghana is the second-most populous country in West Africa. The capital and largest city is Accra; other significant cities include Kumasi, Tamale, and Sekondi-Takoradi.

The earliest kingdoms to emerge in Ghana were the Kingdom of Dagbon in the north and the Bonoman in the south, with Bonoman existing in the area during the 11th century.[9][10] The Ashanti Empire and other Akan kingdoms in the south emerged over the centuries.[11] Beginning in the 15th century, the Portuguese Empire, followed by other European powers, contested the area for trading rights, until the British ultimately established control of the coast by the 19th century. Following over a century of colonial resistance, the current borders of the country took shape, encompassing four separate British colonial territories: Gold Coast, Ashanti, the Northern Territories, and British Togoland. These were unified as an independent dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations. On 6 March 1957, Ghana became the first colony in Sub-Saharan Africa to achieve sovereignty.[12][13][14] Ghana subsequently became influential in decolonisation efforts and the Pan-African movement.[15]

Ghana is a multi-ethnic country with linguistic and religious groups;[16] while the Akan are the largest ethnic group, they constitute a plurality. Most Ghanaians are Christians (71.3%); almost a fifth are Muslims; a tenth practise traditional faiths or report no religion.[3] Ghana is a unitary constitutional democracy led by a president who is head of state and head of government.[17] For political stability in Africa, Ghana ranked seventh in the 2012 Ibrahim Index of African Governance and fifth in the 2012 Fragile States Index. It has maintained since 1993 one of the freest and most stable governments on the continent, and it performs relatively well in healthcare, economic growth, and human development,[15][18] so that it has a significant influence in West Africa and Africa as a whole.[19] Ghana is highly integrated in international affairs, being a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement and the African Union, and a member of the Economic Community of West African States, the Group of 24 and the Commonwealth of Nations.[20]

  1. ^ "Language and Religion". Ghana Embassy. Archived from the original on 1 March 2017. Retrieved 8 January 2017. English is the official language of Ghana and is universally used in schools in addition to nine other local languages. The most widely spoken local languages are Dagbanli, Ewe, Ga and Twi.
  2. ^ "Ghana – 2010 Population and Housing Census" (PDF). Government of Ghana. 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 September 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
  3. ^ a b c "2021 PHC General Report Vol 3C, Background Characteristics" (PDF). Ghana Statistical Service. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 December 2021.
  4. ^ "Ghana country profile". BBC News. 17 October 2023. Archived from the original on 26 January 2022. Retrieved 17 October 2023.
  5. ^ "Ghana". The World Factbook (2024 ed.). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 22 June 2023.
  6. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2023 Edition. (Ghana)". International Monetary Fund. 10 October 2023. Archived from the original on 21 October 2023. Retrieved 14 October 2023.
  7. ^ "Ghana: gini index 2014-2029". Statista. Retrieved 19 May 2024.
  8. ^ "Human Development Report 2023/24" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 13 March 2024. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 March 2024. Retrieved 13 March 2024.
  9. ^ Meyerowitz, Eva L. R. (1975). The Early History of the Akan States of Ghana. Red Candle Press. ISBN 9780608390352.
  10. ^ Danver, Steven L (10 March 2015). Native Peoples of the World: An Encyclopedia of Groups, Cultures and Contemporary Issues. Routledge. p. 25. ISBN 978-1-317-46400-6. Archived from the original on 4 April 2023. Retrieved 19 March 2023.
  11. ^ "Asante Kingdom". Afrika-Studiecentrum, Leiden. 15 June 2002. Archived from the original on 12 July 2014. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
  12. ^ Video: A New Nation: Gold Coast becomes Ghana In Ceremony, 1957/03/07 (1957). Universal Newsreel. 1957. Archived from the original on 28 January 2013. Retrieved 20 February 2012.
  13. ^ "First For Sub-Saharan Africa". BBC. Archived from the original on 1 November 2011. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
  14. ^ "Exploring Africa – Decolonization". Exploring Africa - Michigan State University. Archived from the original on 2 June 2013. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
  15. ^ a b Ateku, Abdul-Jalilu (7 March 2017). "Ghana is 60: An African success story with tough challenges ahead". The Conversation. Archived from the original on 29 June 2021. Retrieved 27 June 2021.
  16. ^ "2020 Population Projection by Sex, 2010–2020". Ghana Statistical Service. Archived from the original on 24 April 2018. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
  17. ^ "Ghana". CIA World FactBook. Archived from the original on 9 January 2021. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
  18. ^ "Ghana's Economy Expected to Recover Its Potential By 2025, says World Bank Report". World Bank. Archived from the original on 19 December 2023. Retrieved 19 December 2023.
  19. ^ Cite error: The named reference South America and West Africa was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  20. ^ "Ghana-US relations". United States Department of State. 13 February 2013. Archived from the original on 5 April 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2013.

Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

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