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Ghana information

Republic of Ghana
Flag of Ghana
Coat of arms of Ghana
Coat of arms
Motto: "Freedom and Justice"
Anthem: "God Bless Our Homeland Ghana"
Location of Ghana
and largest city
05°33′18″N 00°11′33″W / 5.55500°N 0.19250°W / 5.55500; -0.19250
Official languagesEnglish[1][2]
Recognised national languages
  • Dagaare
  • Dagbanli
  • Dangme
  • Ewe
  • Frafra
  • Ga
  • Gonja
  • Hausa
  • Nzema
  • Twi
  • Fante
  • Ghanaian Sign Language
Ethnic groups
(2021 census[3])
  • 45.7% Akans
  • 18.5% Mole-Dagbon
  • 12.8% Ewe
  • 7.1% Ga-Adangbe
  • 6.4% Gurma
  • 3.2% Guan
  • 2.7% Gurunsi
  • 2.0% Mande
  • 1.6% other / unspecified
(2021 census[3])
    • 71.3% Christianity
      • 49.0% Protestantism
      • 22.3% Other Christian
  • 19.9% Islam
  • 3.2% traditional faiths
  • 1.1% no religion
  • 4.5% other / unspecified
GovernmentUnitary presidential republic
• President
Nana Akufo-Addo
• Vice-President
Mahamudu Bawumia
• Speaker of Parliament
Alban Bagbin
• Chief Justice
Gertrude Tokornoo
Independence from the United Kingdom
• Commonwealth realm
6 March 1957
• Republic
1 July 1960
• Total
239,535[4] km2 (92,485 sq mi) (80th)
• Water (%)
4.61 (11,000 km2; 4,247 mi2)
• 2023 estimate
34,237,620 [5] (48th)
• Density
101.5/km2 (262.9/sq mi) (66th)
GDP (PPP)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $229 billion[6] (68th)
• Per capita
Increase $6,974[6] (136th)
GDP (nominal)2023 estimate
• Total
Decrease $66 billion[6] (89th)
• Per capita
Decrease $2,024[6] (149th)
Gini (2016)Negative increase 43.5[7]
HDI (2021)Increase 0.632[8]
medium · 133rd
CurrencyCedi (GHS)
Time zoneUTC (GMT)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+233
ISO 3166 codeGH

Ghana (/ˈɡɑːnə/ GAH-nə; Twi: Gaana, Ewe: Gana), officially the Republic of Ghana, is a country in West Africa.[9] It abuts the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean to the south, sharing borders with Ivory Coast in the west, Burkina Faso in the north, and Togo in the east.[10] Ghana covers an area of 239,535 km2 (92,485 sq mi),[4] spanning diverse biomes that range from coastal savannas to tropical rainforests. With over 32 million inhabitants, Ghana is the second-most populous country in West Africa, after Nigeria.[11] The capital and largest city is Accra; other major cities are Kumasi, Tamale, and Sekondi-Takoradi.

The earliest known kingdoms to emerge in what today is modern Ghana were the Mole-Dagbani states. The Bono state existed in the area that is modern Ghana during the 11th century.[12] Kingdoms and empires such as Kingdom of Dagbon in the north[13] and the Ashanti Empire in the south emerged over the centuries.[14] Beginning in the 15th century, the Portuguese Empire, followed by other European powers, contested the area for trading rights, until the British ultimately established control of the coast by the 19th century. Following over a century of colonial resistance, the current borders of the country took shape, encompassing 4 separate British colonial territories: Gold Coast, Ashanti, the Northern Territories, and British Togoland. These were unified as an independent dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations. On 6 March 1957, Ghana became the first country in Sub-Saharan Africa to achieve sovereignty.[15][16][17] Ghana subsequently became influential in decolonisation efforts and the Pan-African movement.[18]

Ghana is a multi-ethnic country with linguistic and religious groups;[19] while the Akan are the largest ethnic group, they constitute a plurality. Most Ghanaians are Christians (71.3%); almost a fifth are Muslims; a tenth practise traditional faiths or report no religion.[3] Ghana is a unitary constitutional democracy led by a president who is head of state and head of government.[20] For political stability in Africa, Ghana ranked 7th in the 2012 Ibrahim Index of African Governance and 5th in the 2012 Fragile States Index. It has maintained since 1993 one of the freest and most stable governments on the continent, and it performs relatively well in healthcare, economic growth, and human development,[18] so that it has a significant influence in West Africa and Africa as a whole.[21] Ghana is highly integrated in international affairs, being a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement, African Union and a member of the Economic Community of West African States, Group of 24 and Commonwealth of Nations.[22]

  1. ^ "Language and Religion". Ghana Embassy. Archived from the original on 1 March 2017. Retrieved 8 January 2017. English is the official language of Ghana and is universally used in schools in addition to nine other local languages. The most widely spoken local languages are Dagbanli, Ewe, Ga and Twi.
  2. ^ "Ghana – 2010 Population and Housing Census" (PDF). Government of Ghana. 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 September 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
  3. ^ a b c "2021 PHC General Report Vol 3C, Background Characteristics" (PDF). Ghana Statistical Service. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 December 2021.
  4. ^ a b "Ghana". August 2023.
  5. ^ "Ghana". The World Factbook (2023 ed.). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 22 June 2023.
  6. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2023". International Monetary Fund. April 2023. Archived from the original on 24 April 2023. Retrieved 24 April 2023.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  7. ^ "GINI index (World Bank estimate)". World Bank. Archived from the original on 25 January 2019. Retrieved 14 July 2021.
  8. ^ "Human Development Report 2020" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  9. ^ "Ghana country profile". BBC News. 11 December 2020. Archived from the original on 26 January 2022. Retrieved 26 January 2022.
  10. ^ Jackson, John G. (2001) Introduction to African Civilizations, Citadel Press, p. 201, ISBN 0-8065-2189-9.
  11. ^ Ghana a country to study. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data. 1995. p. 63.
  12. ^ Meyerowitz, Eva L. R. (1975). The Early History of the Akan States of Ghana. Red Candle Press. ISBN 9780608390352.
  13. ^ Danver, Steven L (10 March 2015). Native Peoples of the World: An Encyclopedia of Groups, Cultures and Contemporary Issues. Routledge. p. 25. ISBN 978-1-317-46400-6. Archived from the original on 4 April 2023. Retrieved 19 March 2023.
  14. ^ "Asante Kingdom". Afrika-Studiecentrum, Leiden. 15 June 2002. Archived from the original on 12 July 2014. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
  15. ^ Video: A New Nation: Gold Coast becomes Ghana In Ceremony, 1957/03/07 (1957). Universal Newsreel. 1957. Archived from the original on 28 January 2013. Retrieved 20 February 2012.
  16. ^ "First For Sub-Saharan Africa". BBC. Archived from the original on 1 November 2011. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
  17. ^ "Exploring Africa – Decolonization". Exploring Africa - Michigan State University. Archived from the original on 2 June 2013. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
  18. ^ a b Ateku, Abdul-Jalilu (7 March 2017). "Ghana is 60: An African success story with tough challenges ahead". The Conversation. Archived from the original on 29 June 2021. Retrieved 27 June 2021.
  19. ^ "2020 Population Projection by Sex, 2010–2020". Ghana Statistical Service. Archived from the original on 24 April 2018. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
  20. ^ "Ghana". CIA World FactBook. Archived from the original on 9 January 2021. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
  21. ^ Cite error: The named reference South America and West Africa was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  22. ^ "Ghana-US relations". United States Department of State. 13 February 2013. Archived from the original on 5 April 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2013.

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University of Ghana is a public university located in Accra, Ghana. It is the premier, oldest, and largest of the thirteen public universities in Ghana. The university...

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of the Republic of Ghana is the elected head of state and head of government of Ghana, as well as commander-in-chief of the Ghana Armed Forces. The current...

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Politics of Ghana takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the president of Ghana is both head of state...

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