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Finland information


Republic of Finland
  • Suomen tasavalta (Finnish)
  • Republiken Finland (Swedish)
Flag of Finland
Flag
Coat of arms of Finland
Coat of arms
Anthem: 
Maamme (Finnish)
Vårt land (Swedish)
(English: "Our Land")
EU-Finland (orthographic projection).svg
EU-Finland.svg
Location of Finland (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (green)  –  [Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Helsinki
60°10′15″N 24°56′15″E / 60.17083°N 24.93750°E / 60.17083; 24.93750
Official languages
  • Finnish
  • Swedish
Recognized national languages
  • Sámi
  • Karelian
  • Finnish Kalo
  • Finnish Sign Language
  • Finland-Swedish Sign Language
Ethnic groups
(2021)[1][2]
  • 91.5% Finns[note 1]
  • 8.5% Others
Religion
(2021)[3]
  • 68.6% Christianity
  • —66.6% Lutheranism
  • —1.1% Orthodoxy
  • —0.9% Other Christian
  • 30.6% No religion
  • 0.8% Others
Demonym(s)
  • Finnish
  • Finn
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic[4]
• President
Sauli Niinistö
• Prime Minister
Sanna Marin
• Speaker of the Parliament
Matti Vanhanen
LegislatureParliament
Independence 
from Russia
• Integration and autonomy in the Russian Empire
29 March 1809
• Declaration of Independence
6 December 1917
• Finnish Civil War
January – May 1918
• Constitution established
17 July 1919
• Winter War
30 November 1939 – 13 March 1940
• Continuation War
25 June 1941 – 19 September 1944
• Joined the EU
1 January 1995
Area
• Total
338,455 km2 (130,678 sq mi) (65th)
• Water (%)
9.71 (2015)[5]
Population
• 2022 estimate
Neutral increase 5,553,000[6] (116th)
• Density
16.4/km2 (42.5/sq mi) (213th)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase$321.2 billion[7] (60th)
• Per capita
Increase$58,010[7] (21st)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase$267.61 billion[7] (46th)
• Per capita
Increase$53,745[7] (16th)
Gini (2021)Positive decrease 25.7[8]
low
HDI (2021)Increase 0.940[9]
very high · 11th
CurrencyEuro (€) (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+3 (EEST)
Date formatdd.mm.yyyy[10]
Driving sideright
Calling code+358
ISO 3166 codeFI
Internet TLD.fi, .axa
  1. The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states.

Finland (Finnish: Suomi [ˈsuo̯mi] (Finlandlisten); Swedish: Finland [ˈfɪ̌nland] (Finlandlisten)), officially the Republic of Finland (Finnish: Suomen tasavalta; Swedish: Republiken Finland (Finlandlisten to all)),[note 2] is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. It shares land borders with Sweden to the northwest, Norway to the north, and Russia to the east, with the Gulf of Bothnia to the west and the Gulf of Finland across Estonia to the south. Finland covers an area of 338,455 square kilometres (130,678 sq mi) with a population of 5.6 million. Helsinki is the capital and largest city, forming a larger metropolitan area with the neighbouring cities of Espoo, Kauniainen, and Vantaa. The vast majority of the population are ethnic Finns. Finnish, alongside Swedish, are the official languages. Swedish is the native language of 5.2% of the population.[11] Finland's climate varies from humid continental in the south to the boreal in the north. The land cover is primarily a boreal forest biome, with more than 180,000 recorded lakes.[12]

Finland was first inhabited around 9000 BC after the Last Glacial Period.[13] The Stone Age introduced several different ceramic styles and cultures. The Bronze Age and Iron Age were characterized by extensive contacts with other cultures in Fennoscandia and the Baltic region.[14] From the late 13th century, Finland gradually became an integral part of Sweden as a consequence of the Northern Crusades. In 1809, as a result of the Finnish War, Finland became part of the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland, during which Finnish art flourished and the idea of independence began to take hold. In 1906, Finland became the first European state to grant universal suffrage, and the first in the world to give all adult citizens the right to run for public office.[15][16] Nicholas II, the last Tsar of Russia, tried to russify Finland and terminate its political autonomy, but after the 1917 Russian Revolution, Finland declared independence from Russia. In 1918, the fledgling state was divided by the Finnish Civil War. During World War II, Finland fought the Soviet Union in the Winter War and the Continuation War, and Nazi Germany in the Lapland War. It subsequently lost parts of its territory, but maintained its independence.

Finland largely remained an agrarian country until the 1950s. After World War II, it rapidly industrialized and developed an advanced economy, while building an extensive welfare state based on the Nordic model; the country soon enjoyed widespread prosperity and a high per capita income.[17] Finland joined the United Nations in 1955 and adopted an official policy of neutrality; it joined the OECD in 1969, the NATO Partnership for Peace in 1994,[18] the European Union in 1995, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council in 1997,[18] and the Eurozone at its inception in 1999. Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life and human development.[19][20][21][22] In 2015, Finland ranked first in the World Human Capital,[23] topped the Press Freedom Index, and was the most stable country in the world during 2011–2016, according to the Fragile States Index;[24] it is second in the Global Gender Gap Report,[25] and has ranked first in every annual World Happiness Report since 2018.[26][27][28]


Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

  1. ^ "11rv – Origin and background country by sex, by municipality, 1990–2020". Statistics Finland. Archived from the original on 1 June 2022. Retrieved 21 August 2021.
  2. ^ "United Nations Population Division | Department of Economic and Social Affairs". United Nations. Retrieved 29 June 2018.
  3. ^ "Population". Statistics Finland. Retrieved 5 April 2021.
  4. ^ Cite error: The named reference Parliamentary was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  5. ^ "Surface water and surface water change". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Retrieved 11 October 2020.
  6. ^ "Finland's preliminary population figure was 5,552,550 at the end of June 2022". Statistics Finland. Retrieved 22 July 2022.
  7. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database April 2022". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 19 June 2022.
  8. ^ "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income". Eurostat. Retrieved 7 August 2022.
  9. ^ "Human Development Report 2021/2022" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 8 September 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
  10. ^ Ajanilmaukset Archived 20 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine Kielikello 2/2006. Institute for the Languages of Finland. Retrieved 20 October 2017
  11. ^ "Språk i Finland" [Language in Finland]. Institute for the Languages of Finland (in Swedish).
  12. ^ Li, Leslie (16 April 1989). "A Land of a Thousand Lakes". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  13. ^ Haggren, Georg; Halinen, Petri; Lavento, Mika; Raninen, Sami; Wessman, Anna (2015). Muinaisuutemme jäljet. Helsinki: Gaudeamus. p. 23. ISBN 978-952-495-363-4.
  14. ^ Haggren, Georg; Halinen, Petri; Lavento, Mika; Raninen, Sami; Wessman, Anna (2015). Muinaisuutemme jäljet. Helsinki: Gaudeamus. p. 339. ISBN 978-952-495-363-4.
  15. ^ Parliament of Finland. "History of the Finnish Parliament". eduskunta.fi. Archived from the original on 6 December 2015.
  16. ^ Finland was the first nation in the world to give all (adult) citizens full suffrage, in other words the right to vote and to run for office, in 1906. New Zealand was the first country in the world to grant all (adult) citizens the right to vote, in 1893. But women did not get the right to run for the New Zealand legislature, until 1919.
  17. ^ "Finland". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 17 April 2013.
  18. ^ a b Relations with Finland. NATO (13 January 2016)
  19. ^ "Finland: World Audit Democracy Profile". WorldAudit.org. Archived from the original on 30 October 2013.
  20. ^ "Tertiary education graduation rates—Education: Key Tables from OECD". OECD iLibrary. 14 June 2010. doi:10.1787/20755120-table1. Archived from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 6 March 2011. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  21. ^ "Her er verdens mest konkurransedyktige land—Makro og politikk". E24.no. 9 September 2010. Archived from the original on 14 October 2010. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
  22. ^ "The 2009 Legatum Prosperity Index". Prosperity.com. Archived from the original on 29 October 2009. Retrieved 4 February 2010.
  23. ^ "Human Capital Report 2015". World Economic Forum. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
  24. ^ "Fragile States Index 2016". Fundforpeace.org. Archived from the original on 4 February 2017. Retrieved 27 November 2016.
  25. ^ Gender Gap Report (PDF). WEF.
  26. ^ Hetter, Katia (26 March 2019). "This is the world's happiest country in 2019". CNN. Retrieved 31 March 2019.
  27. ^ Helliwell, John F.; Sachs, Jeffrey; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel, eds. (2020). "World Happiness Report 2020" (PDF). New York: Sustainable Development Solutions Network. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
  28. ^ Hunter, Marnie (18 March 2022). "The world's happiest countries for 2022". CNN. Retrieved 18 March 2022.

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