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Ethiopia information


Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
Name in national languages
  • Amharic:የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዴሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ
    Ye-Ītyōṗṗyā Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk
    Oromo:Rippabliikii Federaalawaa Dimokraatawaa Itiyoophiyaa
    Somali:Jamhuuriyadda Dimuqraadiga Federaalka Itoobiya
    Tigrinya:ፌዴራላዊ ዴሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ ኢትዮጵያ
    Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīki Ítiyop'iya
    Afar:Itiyoppiya Federaalak Demokraatik Rippeblikih
Flag of Ethiopia
Flag
Emblem of Ethiopia
Emblem
Anthem: 
ወደፊት ገስግሺ ፣ ውድ እናት ኢትዮጵያ
(English: "March Forward, Dear Mother Ethiopia")
Location of Ethiopia
Capital
and largest city
Addis Ababa
9°1′N 38°45′E / 9.017°N 38.750°E / 9.017; 38.750
Official languagesAfar
Amharic
Oromo
Somali
Tigrinya[1][2][3]
Regional languages[4]
  • Harari
  • Sidama
  • Languages of Ethiopia
Ethnic groups
(2007[5][6])
  • 34.5% Oromo
  • 26.9% Amhara
  • 6.2% Somali
  • 6.1% Tigrayan
  • 4.0% Sidama
  • 2.5% Gurage
  • 2.3% Welayta
  • 1.7% Hadiya
  • 1.7% Afar
  • 1.5% Gamo
  • 12.6% Others
Religion
(2016[7])
    • 67.3% Christianity
      • 43.8% Ethiopian Orthodoxy
      • 22.8% P'ent'ay
      • 0.7% Other Christian
  • 31.3% Islam
  • 0.6% Traditional faiths
  • 0.8% Others / None
Demonym(s)Ethiopian
GovernmentFederal parliamentary republic[8]
• President
Sahle-Work Zewde
• Prime Minister
Abiy Ahmed
LegislatureFederal Parliamentary Assembly
• Upper house
House of Federation
• Lower house
House of Peoples' Representatives
Formation
• Ethiopian Empire
1270
• Zemene Mesafint
7 May 1769
• Reunification
11 February 1855
• Centralisation
1904
• Occupied and annexed into Italian East Africa
9 May 1936
• Anglo-Ethiopian Agreement
31 January 1942
• Derg
12 September 1974
• Transitional government
28 May 1991
• Current constitution
21 August 1995
Area
• Total
1,104,300[9] km2 (426,400 sq mi) (26th)
• Water (%)
0.7
Population
• 2022 estimate
113,656,596[10] (13th)
• 2007 census
73,750,932[6]
• Density
92.7/km2 (240.1/sq mi) (123rd)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
• Total
$345.14 billion[11] (56th)
• Per capita
$3,407[12]
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
• Total
$122.591 billion[12] (65th)
• Per capita
$1,040[12]
Gini (2015)Negative increase 35.0[13]
medium
HDI (2019)Increase 0.485[14]
low · 173rd
CurrencyBirr (ETB)
Time zoneUTC+3 (EAT)
Driving sideright
Calling code+251
ISO 3166 codeET
Internet TLD.et

Ethiopia, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a landlocked country in the Horn of Africa. It shares borders with Eritrea to the north, Djibouti to the northeast, Somalia to the east and northeast, Kenya to the south, South Sudan to the west, and Sudan to the northwest. Ethiopia has a total area of 1,100,000 square kilometres (420,000 square miles). As of 2022, it is home to around 113.5 million inhabitants, making it the 12th-most populous country in the world and the 2nd-most populous in Africa after Nigeria.[15][16][17] The national capital and largest city, Addis Ababa, lies several kilometres west of the East African Rift that splits the country into the African and Somali tectonic plates.[18]

Anatomically modern humans emerged from modern-day Ethiopia and set out to the Near East and elsewhere in the Middle Paleolithic period.[19][20][21][22][23] Southwestern Ethiopia has been proposed as a possible homeland of the Afroasiatic language family.[24] In 980 BCE, the Kingdom of D'mt extended its realm over Eritrea and the northern region of Ethiopia, while the Kingdom of Aksum maintained a unified civilization in the region for 900 years. Christianity was embraced by the kingdom in 330,[25] and Islam arrived by the first Hijra in 615.[26] After the collapse of Aksum in 960, a variety of kingdoms, largely tribal confederations, existed in the land of Ethiopia. The Zagwe dynasty ruled the north-central parts until being overthrown by Yekuno Amlak in 1270, inaugurating the Ethiopian Empire and the Solomonic dynasty, claimed descent from the biblical Solomon and Queen of Sheba under their son Menelik I. By the 14th century, the empire grew in prestige through territorial expansion and fighting against adjacent territories; most notably, the Ethiopian–Adal War (1529–1543) contributed to fragmentation of the empire, which ultimately fell under a decentralization known as Zemene Mesafint in the mid-18th century. Emperor Tewodros II ended Zemene Mesafint at the beginning of his reign in 1855, marking the reunification and modernization of Ethiopia.[27]

From 1878 onwards, Emperor Menelik II launched a series of conquests known as Menelik's Expansions, which resulted in the formation of Ethiopia's current border. Externally, during the late 19th century, Ethiopia defended itself against foreign invasions, including from Egypt and Italy; as a result, Ethiopia and Liberia preserved their sovereignty during the Scramble for Africa. In 1935, Ethiopia was occupied by Fascist Italy and annexed with Italian-possessed Eritrea and Somaliland, later forming Italian East Africa. In 1941, during World War II, it was occupied by the British Army, and its full sovereignty was restored in 1944 after a period of military administration. The Derg, a Soviet-backed military junta, took power in 1974 after deposing Emperor Haile Selassie and the Solomonic dynasty, and ruled the country for nearly 17 years amidst the Ethiopian Civil War. Following the dissolution of the Derg in 1991, the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) dominated the country with a new constitution and ethnic-based federalism. Since then, Ethiopia has suffered from prolonged and unsolved inter-ethnic clashes and political instability marked by democratic backsliding. From 2018, regional and ethnically based factions carried out armed attacks in multiple ongoing wars throughout Ethiopia.[28]

Ethiopia is a multi-ethnic state with over 80 different ethnic groups. Christianity is the most widely professed faith in the country, with significant minorities of the adherents of Islam and a small percentage to traditional faiths. This sovereign state is a founding member of the UN, the Group of 24, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77, and the Organisation of African Unity. Addis Ababa is the headquarters of the African Union, the Pan African Chamber of Commerce and Industry, the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, the African Standby Force and many of the global non-governmental organizations focused on Africa. Ethiopia is considered an emerging power[29][30] and developing country, having the fastest economic growth in Sub-Saharan African countries because of foreign direct investment in expansion of agricultural and manufacturing industries.[31] However, in terms of per capita income and the Human Development Index,[32] the country is regarded as poor with high rates of poverty,[33] poor respect for human rights, and a literacy rate of only 49%.[34] Agriculture is the largest economic sector in Ethiopia, accounting for 36% of the country's gross domestic product as of 2020.[35][36]

  1. ^ Cite error: The named reference Ventures was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Nazret was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  3. ^ Shaban, Abdurahman. "One to five: Ethiopia gets four new federal working languages". Africa News. Archived from the original on 15 December 2020. Retrieved 23 October 2020.
  4. ^ "Ethiopian Constitution".
  5. ^ "Table 2.2 Percentage distribution of major ethnic groups: 2007" (PDF). Summary and Statistical Report of the 2007 Population and Housing Census Results. Population Census Commission. p. 16. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 March 2009. Retrieved 14 December 2020.
  6. ^ a b "Country Level". 2007 Population and Housing Census of Ethiopia. CSA. 13 July 2010. Archived from the original on 8 February 2019. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
  7. ^ "Ethiopia- The World Factbook". www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Retrieved 19 July 2021.
  8. ^ "Zenawism as ethnic-federalism" (PDF).
  9. ^ Cite error: The named reference CIA World Factbook was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  10. ^ "Ethiopia". The World Factbook (2022 ed.). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 24 September 2022.
  11. ^ "The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia". IMF.org. IMF. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
  12. ^ a b c "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2020". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 1 December 2020.
  13. ^ "Gini Index coefficient". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 16 July 2021.
  14. ^ Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN 978-92-1-126442-5. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  15. ^ "Population Projections for Ethiopia 2007–2037". www.csa.gov.et. Archived from the original on 3 August 2020. Retrieved 25 September 2020.
  16. ^ "World Population Prospects 2022". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 17 July 2022.
  17. ^ "World Population Prospects 2022: Demographic indicators by region, subregion and country, annually for 1950-2100" (XSLX). population.un.org ("Total Population, as of 1 July (thousands)"). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 17 July 2022.
  18. ^ "Ethiopia". The World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved 5 April 2021.
  19. ^ Kessler, David F. (2012). The Falashas : a Short History of the Ethiopian Jews. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-283-70872-2. OCLC 819506475.
  20. ^ Hopkin, Michael (16 February 2005). "Ethiopia is top choice for cradle of Homo sapiens". Nature. doi:10.1038/news050214-10.
  21. ^ Li, J.Z.; Absher, D.M.; Tang, H.; Southwick, A.M.; Casto, A.M.; Ramachandran, S.; Cann, H.M.; Barsh, G.S.; Feldman, M.; Cavalli-Sforza, L.L.; Myers, R.M. (2008). "Worldwide Human Relationships Inferred from Genome-Wide Patterns of Variation". Science. 319 (5866): 1100–04. Bibcode:2008Sci...319.1100L. doi:10.1126/science.1153717. PMID 18292342. S2CID 53541133.
  22. ^ "Humans Moved From Africa Across Globe, DNA Study Says". Bloomberg News. 21 February 2008. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 16 March 2009.
  23. ^ Kaplan, Karen (21 February 2008). "Around the world from Addis Ababa". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 3 June 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2009.
  24. ^ Blench, Roger (2006). Archaeology, Language, and the African Past. AltaMira Press. pp. 150–163. ISBN 978-0759104662.
  25. ^ Moore, Dale H. (1936). "Christianity in Ethiopia". Church History. 5 (3): 271–284. doi:10.2307/3160789. ISSN 0009-6407. JSTOR 3160789. S2CID 162029676.
  26. ^ Abbink, Jon (1998). "An Historical-Anthropological Approach to Islam in Ethiopia: Issues of Identity and Politics". Journal of African Cultural Studies. 11 (2): 109–124. doi:10.1080/13696819808717830. hdl:1887/9486. ISSN 1369-6815. JSTOR 1771876.
  27. ^ "Ethnicity and Power in Ethiopia" (PDF). 12 April 2022.
  28. ^ BBC Staff (3 November 2020). "Ethiopia attack: Dozens 'rounded up and killed' in Oromia state". BBC. Retrieved 25 May 2021.
  29. ^ "5 reasons why Ethiopia could be the next global economy to watch". World Economic Forum. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
  30. ^ Africa, Somtribune (29 August 2020). "Ethiopia Can Be Africa's Next Superpower". SomTribune. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
  31. ^ "Overview". World Bank. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
  32. ^ "Overview". World Bank. Retrieved 23 December 2021.
  33. ^ "Ethiopia Poverty Assessment". World Bank. Retrieved 17 December 2018.
  34. ^ "Major problems facing Ethiopia today". Africaw.
  35. ^ "Ethiopia: Share of economic sectors in the gross domestic product (GDP) from 2010 to 2020". Statista.
  36. ^ "Agriculture in Ethiopia: data shows for a large part Agriculture still retained its majority share of the economy". The Low Ethiopian Reports. 16 June 2022.

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Ethiopia

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Ethiopian Empire

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The Ethiopian Empire (Ge'ez: መንግሥተ ኢትዮጵያ, romanized: Mängəstä Ityop'p'ya, lit. 'Government of Ethiopia'), also formerly known by the exonym Abyssinia,...

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Languages of Ethiopia

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Foreign relations of Ethiopia

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The foreign relations of Ethiopia refers to overall diplomatic relationship of Ethiopia. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs oversees foreign relations and...

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History of Ethiopia

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Ethiopian calendar

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official calendar in Ethiopia. It is used as both the civil calendar (in Ethiopia) and an ecclesiastical calendar (in Ethiopia and Eritrea). It is the...

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Ethiopian National Defense Force

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The Ethiopian National Defense Force (ENDF) (Amharic: የኢፌዲሪ መከላከያ ሠራዊት, romanized: Ye’īfēdērī mekelakeya šerawīt, lit. 'FDRE Defense Force') is the military...

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Constitutions of Ethiopia

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Ethiopia has had four constitutions: 1931 Constitution of Ethiopia 1955 Constitution of Ethiopia 1987 Constitution of Ethiopia 1995 Constitution of Ethiopia...

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Economy of Ethiopia

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The economy of Ethiopia is a mixed and transition economy with a large public sector. The government of Ethiopia is in the process of privatizing many...

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List of universities and colleges in Ethiopia

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list of universities and colleges in Ethiopia. It includes both public and private institutions. |} "List of Ethiopian Public Universities" (PDF). Archived...

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History of the Jews in Ethiopia

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The history of the Jews in Ethiopia refers to people in Ethiopia who practice Judaism or have Jewish ancestry. This history goes back millennia. The largest...

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1995 Constitution of Ethiopia

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The Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (Amharic: የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዴሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ ሕገ መንግሥት, romanized: Ye-Ītyōṗṗyā Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī...

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Flag of Ethiopia

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The flag of Ethiopia (Amharic: የኢትዮጵያ ሰንደቅ ዐላማ, romanized: Ye-Ītyōṗṗyā sändäq ʿälama) is the national flag of Ethiopia. It consists of a green, yellow...

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Ethiopia national football team

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Emblem of Ethiopia

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Ethiopian cuisine

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question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Ethiopic characters. Ethiopian cuisine (Amharic: የኢትዮጵያ ምግብ "Ye-Ītyōṗṗyā məgəb") characteristically consists...

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List of emperors of Ethiopia

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recognized. Emperor of Ethiopia Emperors of Ethiopia Family tree President of Ethiopia List of presidents of Ethiopia Prime Minister of Ethiopia List of heads...

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Emperor of Ethiopia

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boxes, or other symbols instead of Ethiopic characters. The emperor of Ethiopia (Ge'ez: ንጉሠ ነገሥት, nəgusä nägäst, "King of Kings"), also known as the Atse...

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Eritrea

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Africa, with its capital and largest city at Asmara. It is bordered by Ethiopia in the south, Sudan in the west, and Djibouti in the southeast. The northeastern...

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