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Coptic language information


Coptic
ϯⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ
Native toEgypt
EthnicityCopts
Era
  • Literary: c. 3rd – c. 14th century AD (Roman Egypt)[1]
  • Spoken: c. 3rd – c. 17th or 19th century AD[2][3]
  • Liturgical: c. 3rd century AD – present[4]
Language family
Afro-Asiatic
  • Egyptian
    • Coptic
Early forms
Archaic Egyptian
  • Old Egyptian
    • Middle Egyptian
      • Late Egyptian
        • Demotic
Dialects
  • Bohairic
  • Sahidic
  • Akhmimic
  • Lycopolitan
  • Fayyumic
  • Oxyrhynchite
Writing system
Coptic alphabet
Language codes
ISO 639-2cop
ISO 639-3cop
Glottologcopt1239
Coptic is an extinct language according to the classification system of the UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger
[5]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Coptic (Bohairic Coptic: ϯⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ, Timetremǹkhēmi) is a group of closely related Egyptian dialects,[6] representing the most recent developments of the Egyptian language,[2][7] and historically spoken by the Copts, starting from the third century AD in Roman Egypt.[8] Coptic was supplanted by Arabic as the primary spoken language of Egypt following the Arab conquest of Egypt and was slowly replaced over the centuries. Coptic has no native speakers today,[9] although it remains in daily use as the liturgical language of the Coptic Orthodox Church and of the Coptic Catholic Church.[10] Innovations in grammar and phonology and the influx of Greek loanwords distinguish Coptic from earlier periods of the Egyptian language. It is written with the Coptic alphabet, a modified form of the Greek alphabet with several additional letters borrowed from the Demotic Egyptian script.[11]

The major Coptic dialects are Sahidic, Bohairic, Akhmimic, Fayyumic, Lycopolitan, and Oxyrhynchite. Sahidic Coptic was spoken between the cities of Asyut and Oxyrhynchus[12] and flourished as a literary language across Egypt in the period c. 325 – c. 800 AD.[13] Bohairic, the language of the Nile Delta, gained prominence in the 9th century and is the dialect used by the Coptic Church.[14] Despite being closely related, Coptic dialects differ from one another in terms of their phonology, morphology, syntax, and vocabulary.

  1. ^ Richter, Tonio Sebastian (2009). "Greek, Coptic and the 'language of the Hijra': the rise and decline of the Coptic language in late antique and medieval Egypt" (PDF). Hellenism to Islam: Cultural and Linguistic Change in the Roman Near East. Cambridge University Press. p. 404. The most long-lived genres of Coptic texts, composed until the thirteenth and even fourteenth century in the Upper Egyptian dialect, are scribal colophons, inscriptions and graffiti.
  2. ^ a b P. Allen, James (2020). Coptic: A Grammar of Its Six Major Dialects. Penn State Press. p. 1. ISBN 9789042918108. Coptic is the name of the final stage of the Egyptian language, spoken and written from the third century AD until perhaps sometime in the seventeenth century.
  3. ^ Cite error: The named reference extinct was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  4. ^ P. Allen, James (2020). Coptic: A Grammar of Its Six Major Dialects. Penn State Press. p. 1. ISBN 9789042918108. It [Coptic] is still used today in the rituals of the Coptic (Egyptian Christian) Church.
  5. ^ Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger (Report) (3rd ed.). UNESCO. 2010. p. 12.
  6. ^ P. Allen, James (2020). Coptic: A Grammar of Its Six Major Dialects. Penn State Press. p. 1. ISBN 9781646020843. ...there is no uniform "Coptic" language, but a number of dialects.
  7. ^ Layton, Benjamin (2007). Coptic in 20 Lessons: Introduction to Sahidic Coptic with Exercises & Vocabularies. Peeters Publishers. p. 1. ISBN 9789042918108. It [Coptic] is the direct descendant of Ancient Egyptian...
  8. ^ Richter, Tonio Sebastian (2009). "Greek, Coptic and the 'language of the Hijra': the rise and decline of the Coptic language in late antique and medieval Egypt" (PDF). Hellenism to Islam: Cultural and Linguistic Change in the Roman Near East. Cambridge University Press. p. 404. From everything we know it must be assumed that the spoken language behind the written evidence of Coptic was usually acquired as a first language, which means as mother tongue in non-Hellenised, or non-Arabised Egyptian families, but scarcely, if at all, as a second language.
  9. ^ "Coptic". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2022-05-17.
  10. ^ Layton, Benjamin (2007). Coptic in 20 Lessons: Introduction to Sahidic Coptic with Exercises & Vocabularies. Peeters Publishers. p. 1. ISBN 9789042918108. The liturgy of the present day Coptic Orthodox Church in Egypt is written in a mixture of Arabic, Greek, and Bohairic Coptic, the ancient dialect of the Delta and the great monasteries of the Wadi Natrun. Coptic is no longer a living language.
  11. ^ Layton, Benjamin (2007). Coptic in 20 Lessons: Introduction to Sahidic Coptic with Exercises & Vocabularies. Peeters Publishers. p. 1. The Coptic alphabet is the twenty-four Greek letters written in rounded form (thus ⲉ ⲥ ⲱ), to which are added six additional letters taken from Egyptian (Demotic script): ϣ ϥ ϩ ϫ ϭ ϯ.
  12. ^ Blasco Torres, Ana Isabel (2017). Representing Foreign Sounds: Greek Transcriptions of Egyptian Anthroponyms from 800 BC to 800 AD. University of Salamanca. p. 613. doi:10.14201/gredos.135722. ...four main dialects were spoken in Graeco-Roman Egypt: Bohairic in the Delta, Fayumic in the Fayum, Sahidic between approximately Oxyrhynchus and Lykopolis and Akhmimic between Panopolis and Elephantine.
  13. ^ Layton, Benjamin (2007). Coptic in 20 Lessons: Introduction to Sahidic Coptic with Exercises & Vocabularies. Peeters Publishers. p. 1. ISBN 9789042918108. Coptic comprised a number of dialects, of which Sahidic (centered perhaps in Shmoun-Hermopolis-AI Ashmunein) had the greatest literary importance and the widest use in the Nile valley. Almost all native Coptic literature was composed in Sahidic, between AD 325–800.
  14. ^ P. Allen, James (2020). Coptic: A Grammar of Its Six Major Dialects. Penn State Press. p. 1. ISBN 9781646020843. Bohairic, a northern dialect, is first attested in the fourth century AD but is primarily represented by texts from the ninth century and later; it is also the dialect used by the modern Coptic Church.

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Bohairic is a dialect of the Coptic language, the latest stage of the Egyptian language. Bohairic is attested from the eighth century CE, and has been...

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mythology Coptic art Coptic Catholic Church Coptic diaspora Coptic identity Coptic language Coptic literature Copto-Arabic literature Coptic Museum Coptic Orthodox...

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contains Coptic text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Coptic letters. The Coptic Orthodox...

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which is the vernacular language. Literary Arabic is the official language and the most widely written. The Coptic language is used primarily by Egyptian...

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native Egyptian names. These can be either traced back to pre-Coptic stage of the language, attested in Hieroglyphic, Hieratic or Demotic texts (i.e. ⲁⲙⲟⲩⲛ...

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pope (Coptic: Ⲡⲁⲡⲁ, romanized: Papa; Arabic: البابا, romanized: al-Bābā, lit. 'father'), also known as the Bishop of Alexandria or the Coptic pope, is...

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letters. There have been many Coptic versions of the Bible, including some of the earliest translations into any language. Several different versions were...

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Coptic pronunciation reform

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pronunciation of Bohairic, the dialect of Coptic used as the language of the Coptic Orthodox Church. Since Coptic had ceased to be spoken as a mother-tongue by this...

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century. Coptic The Coptic language is spoken as a Liturgical Language by the Coptic community in Libya. English is a notable foreign language in business...

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Αἴγυπτος, “Egyptian”). The Coptic Rite traditionally uses the Coptic language and Greek. Arabic and a number of other modern languages (including English) are...

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Coptic calendar

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contains Coptic text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Coptic letters. The Coptic calendar...

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Old Coptic

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Old Coptic is the earliest stage of Coptic writing, a form of late Egyptian written in Coptic script, a variant of the Greek alphabet. It "is an analytical...

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Coptic nationalism refers to the nationalism of the Copts (Coptic: ⲚⲓⲢⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ̀ⲛ̀Ⲭⲣⲏⲥⲧⲓ̀ⲁⲛⲟⲥ Niremenkīmi Enkhristianos, Arabic: أقباط Aqbat), a Christian...

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List of Coptic place names

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Places whose names originate from the Coptic language. Places whose names were derived from the Coptic language by scholars. Tanta – ⲧⲁⲛⲧⲁⲑⲟ (Tantato)...

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Asyut

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Asyut (Arabic: أسيوط Asyūṭ  pronounced [ʔɑsˈjuːtˤ], from Coptic: ⲥⲓⲟⲟⲩⲧ, ⲥⲓⲱⲟⲩⲧ Siōwt [sɪˈjo(ː)wt]) is the capital of the modern Asyut Governorate in Egypt...

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into two rites: the Coptic Rite and the Ge'ez Rite. The Coptic Rite is native to Egypt and traditionally uses the Coptic language with a few phrases in...

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