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Columbidae information


Columbidae
Temporal range: Early Miocene–recent[1]
PreꞒ
O
S
D
C
P
T
J
K
Pg
N
Pink-necked green pigeon
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Clade: Columbimorphae
Order: Columbiformes
Latham, 1790
Family: Columbidae
Leach, 1819
Type genus
Columba
Linnaeus, 1758
Subfamilies

See text

      Geographic range of the family

Columbidae (/kəˈlʌmbɪd/ kə-LUM-bih-dee) is a bird family consisting of doves and pigeons. It is the only family in the order Columbiformes. These are stout-bodied birds with short necks and short slender bills that in some species feature fleshy ceres. They primarily feed on plants, and can be taxonomically divided amongst granivores, that feed mostly on the ground on seeds, and frugivores, that feed mostly on fruits, from branches. The family occurs worldwide, often in close proximity with humans, but the greatest variety is in the Indomalayan and Australasian realms.

Columbidae contains 344 species divided into 50 genera. 59 species are listed as threatened, and thirteen are extinct,[2] including the dodo, an island bird, and the passenger pigeon, the only bird species not restricted to a small island to go extinct in modern times, even though its flocks were counted in the billions.

Mostly only by English speakers, the smaller species tend to be called "doves", and the larger ones "pigeons",[3] although the distinction is not consistent,[3] and there is no scientific separation between them.[4] Historically, the common names for these birds involve a great deal of variation. The bird most commonly referred to as "pigeon" is the domestic pigeon, or rock dove, which is common in many cities as the feral pigeon.

Doves and pigeons build relatively flimsy nests, often using sticks and other debris, which may be placed on branches of trees, on ledges, or on the ground, depending on species. They lay one or (usually) two white eggs at a time, and both parents care for the young. Unlike most birds, both sexes of doves and pigeons produce "crop milk" to feed to their young, secreted by a sloughing of fluid-filled cells from the lining of the crop.

Unfledged baby doves and pigeons are called squabs and are generally able to fly by 5 weeks of age. These fledglings, with their immature squeaking voices, are called squeakers once they are weaned,[5] and leave the nest after 25–32 days.

Since ancient times, many Columbidae species have developed intricate cultural and practical relations with humans. Doves were important symbols of the goddesses Innana, Asherah, and Aphrodite, and revered by the early Christian, Islamic and Jewish religions. Domestication of pigeons led to significant use of homing pigeons for communication, including war pigeons, such as the 32 pigeons who were awarded the Dickin Medal for "brave service" to their country, in World War II.

  1. ^ Farner, Donald (2012). Avian Biology. Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-323-15799-5.
  2. ^ Gill, Frank; Donsker, David; Rasmussen, Pamela, eds. (2020). "Pigeons". IOC World Bird List Version 10.1. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 27 February 2020.
  3. ^ a b McDonald, Hannah (17 August 2008). "What's the Difference Between Pigeons and Doves?". Big Questions. Mental Floss.
  4. ^ daniel.hani@sprylab.com. "Dove vs pigeon - what's the difference between these two cooing birds? - Discover Wildlife". discoverwildlife.com. Retrieved 30 November 2023.
  5. ^ Crome, Francis H.J. (1991). Forshaw, Joseph (ed.). Encyclopaedia of Animals: Birds. London: Merehurst Press. pp. 115–116. ISBN 978-1-85391-186-6.

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Columbidae

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Columbidae (/kəˈlʌmbɪdiː/ kə-LUM-bih-dee) is a bird family consisting of doves and pigeons. It is the only family in the order Columbiformes. These are...

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List of wild pigeon species

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International Ornithological Committee (IOC) recognizes 352 species in family Columbidae, the pigeons and doves. They are distributed among 50 genera. This list...

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Mourning dove

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The mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) is a member of the dove family, Columbidae. The bird is also known as the American mourning dove, the rain dove, the...

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European turtle dove

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(Streptopelia turtur) is a threatened or vulnerable member of the bird family Columbidae, the doves and pigeons. It breeds over a wide area of the south western...

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Zenaida doves

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doves make up a small genus (Zenaida) of American doves in the family Columbidae. The genus was introduced in 1838 by French naturalist Charles Lucien...

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Domestic pigeon

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Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Aves Order: Columbiformes Family: Columbidae Genus: Columba Species: C. livia Subspecies: C. l. domestica Trinomial...

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Rock dove

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(/ˈpɪdʒ.ən/ also /ˈpɪdʒ.ɪn/; Columba livia) is a member of the bird family Columbidae (doves and pigeons).: 624  In common usage, it is often simply referred...

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Stock dove

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dove or stock pigeon (Columba oenas) is a species of bird in the family Columbidae, the doves and pigeons. It is widely distributed in the western Palearctic...

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Dodo

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solitaire are now placed in their own subfamily, Raphinae, within the family Columbidae. In 2002, American geneticist Beth Shapiro and colleagues analysed the...

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Gallicolumba

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Gallicolumba is a mid-sized genus of ground-dwelling doves (family Columbidae) which occur in rainforests on the Philippines. Local name 'punay' which...

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Henderson ground dove

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Henderson Island ground dove, is an extinct species of bird in the family Columbidae. It was described from Holocene to possibly Late Pleistocene-aged subfossil...

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Common wood pigeon

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simply wood pigeon, is a large species in the dove and pigeon family (Columbidae), native to the western Palearctic. It belongs to the genus Columba, which...

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Leptotila

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Leptotila is a genus of birds in the dove and pigeon family Columbidae. These are ground-foraging doves that live in the Americas. The genus Leptotila...

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List of North American animals extinct in the Holocene

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This list of North American animals extinct in the Holocene features animals known to have become extinct in the last 11,700 years on the North American...

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Barbary dove

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(Streptopelia risoria) is a domestic member of the dove and pigeon family (Columbidae). Although the Barbary dove is normally assigned its own systematic name...

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Burmese collared dove

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collared dove (Streptopelia xanthocycla) is a species of bird in the family Columbidae. It was formerly considered a subspecies of the Eurasian collared dove...

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Imperial pigeon

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Ducula is a genus of the pigeon family Columbidae, collectively known as imperial pigeons. They are large to very large pigeons with a heavy build and...

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White dove

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White dove or White Dove may refer to: A white bird of the Columbidae family Doves as symbols, often portrayed as white, including: Peace dove "White Dove"...

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Pheasant pigeon

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Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Aves Order: Columbiformes Family: Columbidae Genus: Otidiphaps Gould, 1870 Species: O. nobilis Binomial name Otidiphaps...

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Zenaida dove

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The Zenaida dove (Zenaida aurita) is a member of the bird family Columbidae, which includes doves and pigeons. It is the national bird of Anguilla, where...

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Crowned pigeon

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The crowned pigeons (Goura) is a genus of birds in the family Columbidae. It contains four large species of pigeon that are endemic to the island of New...

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List of maximum animal lifespans in captivity

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horribilis 40 years Giraffidae Giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis 39.5 years Columbidae Rock dove Columba livia 35 years Bovidae African buffalo Syncerus caffer...

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Ptilinopinae

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Ptilinopinae is a subfamily of birds from the family Columbidae. Drepanoptila Bonaparte, 1855 Ducula Hodgson, 1836 Gymnophaps Salvadori, 1874 Hemiphaga...

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Streptopelia

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Streptopelia is a genus of birds in the pigeon and dove family Columbidae. These are mainly slim, small to medium-sized species. The upperparts tend to...

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Rainbow lorikeet

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Mason (1997). Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Volume 37, Part 2: Aves (Columbidae to Coraciidae). Australian Biological Resources Study. ISBN 0-643-06037-5...

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Zentrygon

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Zentrygon is a bird genus in the pigeon and dove family (Columbidae). Its members are called quail-doves and all live in the Neotropics. The species of...

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Henderson imperial pigeon

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Henderson Island imperial pigeon, is an extinct species of bird in the Columbidae, or pigeon family. It was described from subfossil remains found on Henderson...

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