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Caucasus information

Caucasus topographic map-en.svg
Topography of the Caucasus
Coordinates42°15′40″N 44°07′16″E / 42.26111°N 44.12111°E / 42.26111; 44.12111Coordinates: 42°15′40″N 44°07′16″E / 42.26111°N 44.12111°E / 42.26111; 44.12111
  • Caucasus Armenia
  • Caucasus Azerbaijan
  • Caucasus Georgia
  • Caucasus Russia
Related areas
  • Caucasus Iran
  • Caucasus Turkey
Partially recognized or unrecognized countries
  • Caucasus Abkhazia
  • Flag of Artsakh.svg Artsakh
  • Flag of South Ossetia.svg South Ossetia
Autonomous republics and federal regions
  • Flag of Abkhazia (GE).svg Abkhazia
    (since 2008, in exile)
  • Caucasus Adjara
  • Caucasus Adygea
  • Caucasus Chechnya
  • Caucasus Dagestan
  • Caucasus Ingushetia
  • Caucasus Kabardino-Balkaria
  • Caucasus Kalmykia
  • Flag of Karachay-Cherkessia.svg Karachay-Cherkessia
  • Caucasus Krasnodar Krai
  • Flag of Azerbaijan.svg Nakhchivan
  • Flag of North Ossetia.svg North Ossetia-Alania
  • Caucasus Stavropol Krai
Time ZonesUTC+02:00, UTC+03:00, UTC+03:30, UTC+04:00, UTC+04:30
Highest mountainElbrus (5,642 metres (18,510 ft))

The Caucasus (/ˈkɔːkəsəs/) or Caucasia[3][4] (/kɔːˈkʒə/), is a region between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, mainly comprising Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and parts of Southern Russia. The Caucasus Mountains, including the Greater Caucasus range, have historically been considered as a natural barrier between Eastern Europe and Western Asia.[5]

Mount Elbrus in Russia, Europe's highest mountain, is situated in the Western Caucasus.[6] On the southern side, the Lesser Caucasus includes the Javakheti Plateau and the Armenian highlands, part of which is in Turkey.[7]

The Caucasus is divided into the North Caucasus and South Caucasus, although the Western Caucasus also exists as a distinct geographic space within the North Caucasus. The Greater Caucasus mountain range in the north is mostly shared by Russia and Georgia as well as the northernmost parts of Azerbaijan. The Lesser Caucasus mountain range in the south is occupied by several independent states, mostly by Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia, but also extending to parts of northeastern Turkey, northern Iran and the self-proclaimed Republic of Artsakh.

The region is known for its linguistic diversity:[8] aside from Indo-European and Turkic languages, the Kartvelian, Northwest Caucasian, and Northeast Caucasian language families are indigenous to the area.

  1. ^ Wright, John; Schofield, Richard; Goldenberg, Suzanne (16 December 2003). Transcaucasian Boundaries. Routledge. p. 72. ISBN 9781135368500.
  2. ^ "Caucasus | Mountains, Facts, & Map". Encyclopedia Britannica.
  3. ^ Shamil Shetekauri et al., Mountain Flowers and Trees of Caucasia; Pelagic Publishing Limited, 2018, ISBN 178427173X.
  4. ^ John L. Esposito, Abdulaziz Sachedina (2004). "Caucasus". The Islamic World: Past and Present. Volume 1. Oxford University Press USA. ISBN 0195165209. p. 86 (registration required). Accessed 30 June 2021.
  5. ^ "Caucasus - region and mountains, Eurasia". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  6. ^ "Russia, Geography". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 22 February 2016.
  7. ^ "Caucasus - region and mountains, Eurasia". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 26 November 2018. West of the Kura-Aras Lowland rises the Lesser Caucasus range, which is extended southward by the Dzhavakhet Range and the Armenian Highland, the latter extending southwestward into Turkey.
  8. ^ "The languages of the Caucasus". Language Log. Retrieved 7 January 2021.

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Azerbaijan, Georgia, and parts of Southern Russia. The Caucasus Mountains, including the Greater Caucasus range, have historically been considered as a natural...

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South Caucasus

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Eastern Europe and Western Asia, straddling the southern Caucasus Mountains. The South Caucasus roughly corresponds to modern Armenia, Georgia, and Azerbaijan...

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North Caucasus

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south. Krasnodar is the largest city within the North Caucasus. Politically, the North Caucasus is made up of Russian republics and krais. It lies north...

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Caucasus Mountains

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surrounded by the Caucasus region and are home to Mount Elbrus, the highest peak in Europe at 5,642 metres (18,510 ft) above sea level. The Caucasus Mountains...

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Peoples of the Caucasus

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The peoples of the Caucasus, or Caucasians, are a diverse group comprising more than 50 ethnic groups throughout the Caucasus. Caucasians who speak languages...

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Caucasus Emirate

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of Caucasus, or Islamic Emirate of the Caucasus, was a jihadist organisation active in rebel-held parts of Syria and previously in the North Caucasus region...

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Alexandria in the Caucasus

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Kush mountains were also designated as the "Caucasus" in parallel to their Western equivalent, the Caucasus Mountains between Europe and Asia. Alexander...

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Caucasus campaign

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the Middle Eastern theatre during World War I. The Caucasus campaign extended from the South Caucasus to the Armenian Highlands region, reaching as far...

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Greater Caucasus

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sometimes translated as "Caucasus Major", "Big Caucasus" or "Large Caucasus") is the major mountain range of the Caucasus Mountains. The range stretches...

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Battle of the Caucasus

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The Battle of the Caucasus is a name given to a series of Axis and Soviet operations in the Caucasus area on the Eastern Front of World War II. On 25 July...

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Caucasus Airlines

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changed for legal reasons. The Caucasus Airlines fleet included the following aircraft: 1 Embraer EMB 120 Brasilia Caucasus Airlines operated 2 EMB-120 airplanes...

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Languages of the Caucasus

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language families of the Caucasus as unrelated." Three of these families have no current indigenous members outside the Caucasus, and are considered indigenous...

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Lesser Caucasus

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The Lesser Caucasus, also called Caucasus Minor, is the second of the two main ranges of the Caucasus Mountains, of length about 600 km (370 mi). The western...

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Caucasus Greeks

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span a much wider region including the Russian north Caucasus, and the former Russian Caucasus provinces of Batum Oblast' and Kars Oblast' (the so-called...

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Caucasus University

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Caucasus University is a private university in Tbilisi, Georgia. The university was established in 2004 on the foundation of Caucasus School of Business...

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History of the Caucasus

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The history of the Caucasus region may be divided by geography into the history of the North Caucasus (Ciscaucasia), historically in the sphere of influence...

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Insurgency in the North Caucasus

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Caucasus (Russian: Борьба с терроризмом на Северном Кавказе) was a low-level armed conflict between Russia and militants associated with the Caucasus...

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The Prisoner of the Caucasus

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Prisoner of the Caucasus (also translated Captive in the Caucasus) may refer to: The Prisoner of the Caucasus (poem) (Кавказский пленник; translit. Kavkazskiy...

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Confederation of Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus

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Peoples of the Caucasus (Russian: Конфедерация горских народов Кавказа) (until 1991 known as Assembly of Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus) was a militarised...

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Second Chechen War

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the Russian Empire began spreading its influence into the Caucasus region, starting the Caucasus War in 1817. Russian forces first moved into highland Chechnya...

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Reichskommissariat Kaukasien

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territories of the Caucasus during World War II. Unlike the other four planned Reichskommissariats, within the borders of the proposed Caucasus Reichskommissariat...

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Prehistoric Caucasus

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– 400 BC) The South Caucasus gradually enters the historical period following the Bronze Age collapse, see history of the Caucasus#Early_history Kingdom...

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Chalcosoma chiron

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Chalcosoma chiron (often called the Caucasus beetle) is a species of beetle in the family Scarabaeidae. This species can be found from Malaysia south into...

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Caucasian War

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romanized: Kavkazskaya voyna) or Caucasus War was a 19th century military conflict between the Russian Empire and various peoples of the North Caucasus who resisted subjugation...

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Kingdom of Iberia

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Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages was a significant monarchy in the Caucasus, either as an independent state or as a dependent of larger empires, notably...

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