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Berlin information

Capital city, state and municipality
Cityscape Berlin.jpg
Brandenburger Tor abends.jpg
Berliner Dom, Westfassade, Nacht, 160309, ako.jpg
Schloss Charlottenburg (233558373).jpeg
Berlin Museumsinsel Fernsehturm.jpg
Hochhäuser am Potsdamer Platz, Berlin, 160606, ako.jpg
Reichstag Berlin Germany.jpg
From top, left to right: Tiergarten skyline; Brandenburg Gate; Berlin Cathedral; Charlottenburg Palace; Museum Island and Berlin TV Tower; Victory Column; Potsdam Square; and Reichstag building
Flag of Berlin
Coat of arms of Berlin
Berlin is located in Germany
Location within Germany
Berlin is located in Europe
Berlin (Europe)
Coordinates: 52°31′12″N 13°24′18″E / 52.52000°N 13.40500°E / 52.52000; 13.40500Coordinates: 52°31′12″N 13°24′18″E / 52.52000°N 13.40500°E / 52.52000; 13.40500
CountryBerlin Germany
 • BodyAbgeordnetenhaus of Berlin
 • Governing MayorFranziska Giffey (SPD)
 • Bundesrat votes4 (of 69)
 • Bundestag seats29 (of 736)
 • City/State891.3 km2 (344.1 sq mi)
 • Urban
3,743 km2 (1,445 sq mi)
 • Metro
30,546 km2 (11,794 sq mi)
34 m (112 ft)
 • City/State3,677,472
 • Density4,126/km2 (10,690/sq mi)
 • Urban
 • Urban density1,195/km2 (3,100/sq mi)
 • Metro
 • Metro density201/km2 (520/sq mi)
DemonymsBerliner(s) (English)
Berliner (m), Berlinerin (f) (German)
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+02:00 (CEST)
Area codes030
GeocodeNUTS Region: DE3
ISO 3166 codeDE-BE
Vehicle registrationB[note 1]
GRP (nominal)€163 billion (2021)[5]
GRP per capita€44,300 (2021)
HDI (2019)0.964[6]
very high · 2nd of 16

Berlin (/bɜːrˈlɪn/ bur-LIN, German: [bɛʁˈliːn] (Berlinlisten))[7] is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population.[8][9] Its 3.6 million inhabitants make it the European Union's most populous city, according to population within city limits.[2] One of Germany's sixteen constituent states, Berlin is surrounded by the State of Brandenburg and contiguous with Potsdam, Brandenburg's capital. Berlin's urban area, which has a population of around 4.5 million, is the second most populous urban area in Germany after the Ruhr.[3] The Berlin-Brandenburg capital region has around 6.2 million inhabitants and is Germany's third-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr and Rhine-Main regions.[10]

Berlin straddles the banks of the Spree, which flows into the Havel (a tributary of the Elbe) in the western borough of Spandau. Among the city's main topographical features are the many lakes in the western and southeastern boroughs formed by the Spree, Havel and Dahme, the largest of which is Lake Müggelsee. Due to its location in the European Plain, Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. About one-third of the city's area is composed of forests, parks, gardens, rivers, canals, and lakes.[11] The city lies in the Central German dialect area, the Berlin dialect being a variant of the Lusatian-New Marchian dialects.

First documented in the 13th century and at the crossing of two important historic trade routes,[12] Berlin became the capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg (1417–1701), the Kingdom of Prussia (1701–1918), the German Empire (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (1919–1933), and Nazi Germany (1933–1945). Berlin became a scientific, artistic and philosophical centre of Europe during the Age of Enlightenment and the reign of king Frederick the Great, and subsequently a centre for Neoclassicism and liberal revolution. The economic boom by industrialisation during the Gründerzeit era multiplied Berlin's population rapidly. Berlin in the roaring 1920s was the third-largest city in the world by population.[13]

After World War II and its subsequent occupation by the victorious countries, the devastated city was divided; West Berlin became a de facto exclave of West Germany, surrounded by the Berlin Wall (from August 1961 to November 1989) and East German territory.[14] East Berlin was declared capital of East Germany, while Bonn became the West German capital. Following German reunification in 1990, Berlin once again became the capital of all of Germany.

Berlin is a world city of culture, politics, media and science.[15][16][17][18] Its economy is based on high-tech firms and the service sector, encompassing a diverse range of creative industries, startup companies, research facilities, media corporations, and convention venues.[19][20] Berlin serves as a continental hub for air and rail traffic and has a highly complex public transportation network. The metropolis is a popular tourist destination.[21] Significant industries also include IT, healthcare, biomedical engineering, biotechnology, automotive, construction, electronics, social economy and clean tech.

Berlin is home to world-renowned universities such as the Humboldt University, the Technical University, the Free University, the University of the Arts, ESMT Berlin, the Hertie School, and Bard College Berlin. Its Zoological Garden is the most visited zoo in Europe and one of the most popular worldwide. With Babelsberg being the world's first large-scale movie studio complex, Berlin is an increasingly popular location for international film productions.[22] The city is well known for its festivals, diverse architecture, nightlife, contemporary arts, and a very high quality of life.[23] Since the 2000s, Berlin has seen the emergence of a cosmopolitan entrepreneurial scene.[24]

Berlin is also home to three World Heritage Sites: Museum Island; the Palaces and Parks of Potsdam and Berlin; and the Modernism Housing Estates.[25] Other landmarks include the Brandenburg Gate, the Reichstag building, Potsdamer Platz, the Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe, the Berlin Wall Memorial, the East Side Gallery, the Berlin Victory Column, Berlin Cathedral, and the Berlin Television Tower, the tallest structure in Germany. Berlin has numerous museums, galleries, libraries, orchestras, and sporting events. These include Museum Island with Berlin Palace, German Historical Museum, Jewish Museum, Natural History Museum, State Library, State Opera, Philharmonic, and the Berlin Marathon.

  1. ^ "Amt für Statistik Berlin Brandenburg – Statistiken". Amt für Statistik Berlin-Brandenburg (in German). Archived from the original on 8 March 2021. Retrieved 2 May 2019.
  2. ^ a b "Amt für Statistik Berlin Brandenburg – Bevölkerung". Amt für Statistik Berlin-Brandenburg (in German). Retrieved 18 November 2022.
  3. ^ a b quoting Federal Statistics Office. "Germany: Urban Areas". Archived from the original on 3 June 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2021.
  4. ^ "Bevölkerungsanstieg in Berlin und Brandenburg mit nachlassender Dynamik" (PDF). Amt für Statistik Berlin-Brandenburg. 8 February 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 August 2021. Retrieved 24 November 2019.
  5. ^ "Bruttoinlandsprodukt – in jeweiligen Preisen – 1991 bis 2021". Archived from the original on 1 April 2021. Retrieved 1 April 2021.
  6. ^ "Sub-national HDI – Area Database – Global Data Lab". Archived from the original on 23 September 2018. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
  7. ^ Kleiner, Stefan; Knöbl, Ralf; Mangold, Max (2015). Das Aussprachewörterbuch (7th ed.). Berlin: Duden. p. 229. ISBN 978-3-411-04067-4.
  8. ^ Milbradt, Friederike (6 February 2019). "Deutschland: Die größten Städte". Die Zeit (Magazin) (in German). Hamburg. Archived from the original on 13 February 2019. Retrieved 24 November 2019.
  9. ^ "Leipzig überholt bei Einwohnerzahl Dortmund – jetzt Platz 8 in Deutschland". Leipziger Volkszeitung (in German). Leipzig. 1 August 2019. Archived from the original on 13 November 2019. Retrieved 24 November 2019.
  10. ^ "Daten und Fakten zur Hauptstadtregion". 4 October 2016. Archived from the original on 21 March 2019. Retrieved 13 April 2022.
  11. ^ Senatsverwaltung für Umwelt, Verkehr und Klimaschutz Berlin, Referat Freiraumplanung und Stadtgrün. "Anteil öffentlicher Grünflächen in Berlin" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 February 2021. Retrieved 10 January 2020.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  12. ^ "Niederlagsrecht" [Settlement rights] (in German). Verein für die Geschichte Berlins. August 2004. Archived from the original on 22 November 2015. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
  13. ^ "Topographies of Class: Modern Architecture and Mass Society in Weimar Berlin (Social History, Popular Culture and Politics in Germany)". September 2009. Archived from the original on 6 July 2018. Retrieved 9 October 2009.
  14. ^ "Berlin Wall". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 30 June 2008. Retrieved 18 August 2008.
  15. ^ "Berlin – Capital of Germany". German Embassy in Washington. Archived from the original on 12 January 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2008.
  16. ^ Davies, Catriona (10 April 2010). "Revealed: Cities that rule the world – and those on the rise". CNN. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 11 April 2010.
  17. ^ Sifton, Sam (31 December 1969). "Berlin, the big canvas". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 12 April 2013. Retrieved 18 August 2008. See also: "Sites and situations of leading cities in cultural globalisations/Media". GaWC Research Bulletin 146. Archived from the original on 2 October 2009. Retrieved 18 August 2008.
  18. ^ "Global Power City Index 2009" (PDF). Institute for Urban Strategies at the Mori Memorial Foundation. 22 October 2009. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 June 2014. Retrieved 29 October 2009.
  19. ^ "ICCA publishes top 20 country and city rankings 2007". ICCA. Archived from the original on 22 September 2008. Retrieved 18 August 2008.
  20. ^ "Berlin City of Design" (Press release). UNESCO. Archived from the original on 16 August 2008. Retrieved 18 August 2008.
  21. ^ "Berlin Beats Rome as Tourist Attraction as Hordes Descend". Bloomberg L.P. 4 September 2014. Archived from the original on 11 September 2014. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
  22. ^ "Hollywood Helps Revive Berlin's Former Movie Glory". Deutsche Welle. 9 August 2008. Archived from the original on 13 August 2008. Retrieved 18 August 2008.
  23. ^ Flint, Sunshine (12 December 2004). "The Club Scene, on the Edge". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2 April 2013. Retrieved 18 August 2008. See also: "Ranking of best cities in the world". City mayors. Archived from the original on 1 November 2010. Retrieved 18 August 2008. and "The Monocle Quality of Life Survey 2015". Monocle. Archived from the original on 14 August 2015. Retrieved 20 July 2015.
  24. ^ "Young Israelis are Flocking to Berlin". Newsweek. 13 June 2014. Archived from the original on 27 August 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
  25. ^ "World Heritage Site Museumsinsel". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 6 May 2021.

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