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Aurangzeb information

  • Al-Mukarram[a]
  • Al-Sultan al-Azam[1]
  • Amir al-mu'minin[b]
Aurangzeb holding a hawk in c. 1660
6th Emperor of the Mughal Empire
Sovereignty31 July 1658 – 3 March 1707
PredecessorShah Jahan
SuccessorAzam Shah
BornMuhi al-Din Muhammad
c. 1618
Dahod, Gujarat
Died3 March 1707
(aged 88)
Ahmednagar, Aurangabad
Tomb of Aurangzeb, Khuldabad
  • Dilras Banu
    (m. 1637; d. 1657)
  • Nawab Bai
    (m. 1638; d. 1691)
  • Aurangabadi Mahal
    (d. 1688)
  • Udaipuri Mahal
  • Zeb-un-Nisa
  • Muhammad Sultan
  • Zinat-un-Nisa
  • Shah Alam I
  • Badr-un-Nisa
  • Zubdat-un-Nisa
  • Azam Shah
  • Muhammad Akbar
  • Mihr-un-Nisa
  • Kam Bakhsh
HouseImperial Seal of the Mughal Empire.svg House of Babur
DynastyAurangzebTimurid dynasty
FatherShah Jahan
MotherMumtaz Mahal
ReligionSunni Islam[c]

Muhi al-Din Muhammad (Persian: محی الدین محمد, romanized: Muḥī al-Dīn Muḥammad; c. 1618 – 3 March 1707), commonly known as Aurangzeb (Persian: اورنگ‌زیب, lit. 'Ornament of the Throne') and by his regnal title Alamgir (Persian: عالمگیر, romanized: ʿĀlamgīr, lit. 'Conqueror of the World'), was the sixth emperor of the Mughal Empire, ruling from July 1658 until his death in 1707. Under his emperorship, the Mughals reached their greatest extent with their territory spanning nearly the entirety of South Asia.[2][3][4][5]

Widely considered to be the last effective Mughal ruler, Aurangzeb compiled the Fatawa 'Alamgiri and was amongst the few monarchs to have fully established Sharia and Islamic economics throughout South Asia.[6][7][8]

Belonging to the aristocratic Timurid dynasty, Aurangzeb's early life was occupied with pious pursuits. He held administrative and military posts under his father Shah Jahan (r. 1628–1658) and gained recognition as an accomplished military commander. Aurangzeb served as the viceroy of the Deccan in 1636–1637 and the governor of Gujarat in 1645–1647. He jointly administrated the provinces of Multan and Sindh in 1648–1652 and continued expeditions into the neighboring Safavid territories. In September 1657, Shah Jahan nominated his eldest and liberalist son Dara Shikoh as his successor, a move repudiated by Aurangzeb, who proclaimed himself emperor in February 1658. In April 1658, Aurangzeb defeated the allied army of Shikoh and the Kingdom of Marwar at the battle of Dharmat. Aurangzeb's decisive victory at the battle of Samugarh in May 1658 cemented his sovereignty and his suzerainty was acknowledged throughout the Empire. After Shah Jahan recovered from illness in July 1658, Aurangzeb declared him incompetent to rule and imprisoned his father in the Agra Fort.

Under Aurangzeb's emperorship, the Mughals reached its greatest extent with their territory spanning nearly the entire South Asia. His reign is characterized by a period of rapid military expansion, with several dynasties and states being overthrown by the Mughals. His conquests acquired him the regnal title Alamgir ('Conqueror'). The Mughals also surpassed Qing China as the world's largest economy and biggest manufacturing power. The Mughal military gradually improved and became one of the strongest armies in the world. A staunch Muslim, Aurangzeb is credited with the construction of numerous mosques and patronizing works of Arabic calligraphy. He successfully imposed the Fatawa 'Alamgiri as the principal regulating body of the empire and prohibited religiously forbidden activities in Islam. Although Aurangzeb suppressed several local revolts, he maintained cordial relations with foreign governments.

Aurangzeb is generally considered by Islamic historians to be one of the greatest emperors of the Mughals. While there is considerable admiration for Aurangzeb in the contemporary sources, he has been criticized for his executions and demolition of Hindu temples. Furthermore, his Islamization of the region, introduction of the Jizya tax and abandonment of un-Islamic practices caused resentment among non-Muslims. Aurangzeb is commemorated by Muslims as a just ruler and the Mujaddid (centennial reviver) of the 11th–12th Islamic century.

Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

  1. ^ "Tomb of Aurangzeb" (PDF). ASI Aurangabad. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
  2. ^ Chapra, Muhammad Umer (2014). Morality and Justice in Islamic Economics and Finance. Edward Elgar Publishing. pp. 62–63. ISBN 9781783475728.
  3. ^ Bayly, C.A. (1990). Indian society and the making of the British Empire (1st pbk. ed.). Cambridge [England]: Cambridge University Press. p. 7. ISBN 9780521386500.
  4. ^ Turchin, Peter; Adams, Jonathan M.; Hall, Thomas D (December 2006). "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires". Journal of World-Systems Research. 12 (2): 223. ISSN 1076-156X. Retrieved 12 September 2016.
  5. ^ József Böröcz (10 September 2009). The European Union and Global Social Change. Routledge. p. 21. ISBN 9781135255800. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
  6. ^ Catherine Blanshard Asher, (1992) "Architecture of Mughal India – Part 1", Cambridge university Press, Volume 1, Page 252.
  7. ^ Cite error: The named reference Hussein2002 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  8. ^ Kawser Ahmed; Helal Mohiuddin (2019). The Rohingya Crisis: Analyses, Responses, and Peacebuilding Avenues. Lexington Books. p. 8. ISBN 9781498585750.

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