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Amhara genocide information

Amhara genocide
Funeral services for victims of mass murders in the city of Mai-kadra held at Abu Aregawi Church.png
Funeral services for the victims of mass murders in the city of Maikadra[1]
Native name የዐማራውን ዘር የማጥፋት ጭፍጨፋ በኢትዮጵያ
Date1990–present (large scale since 2018)
DurationOver three decades
  • Oromia, and Harerghe
  • Annexed Amhara lands in Tigray region
  • Benishangul-Gumuz & Metekel
  • Southern region- SNNPR
  • Amhara region
TypeEthnically targeted & massacred
  • Ethnically motivated mass violence
  • Ethnic federalism and restructuring
  • Annexation
  • Self determination
  • Ethnic cleansing
MotiveAnti-Amhara sentiment, anti-Orthodox sentiment, ethnic federalism, ethnic cleansing
  • Amhara genocide Oromo Liberation Army (also known as Shene or Oneg)
  • Qeerroo youth groups
  • Amhara genocideTigray People's Liberation Front (TPLF)
    • TDF and Pro-TPLF groups such as the Samri youth groups
  • Gumuz extremist militiamen in Amhara genocide Benishangul-Gumuz/Metekel
  • others in Amhara genocide SNNPR
  • Alleged state collaborators
  • Genocide
  • Series of massacres
  • 2 to 6[note 1] million could not be traced: fatalities and enforced disappearances part of this figure[3][4][2]
  • 11 million+ war attack survivors with critical need, 2 million+ displaced[5][6]
  • Genocidal rape, Weaponized Sexual & Gender Based Violence, Induced infertility
  • Abduction and enslavement
  • Destruction of many villages, towns, cities, harvest, farm animals

The Amhara genocide is an ongoing and systematic massacre of ethnic Amhara and Agew people in Ethiopia since 1990[7][8][9] [10][11][4][12][13][14][15] Large-scale killings and grave human rights violations followed the implementation of the ethnic-federalist system in the country.[16][8][11] In most of the cases, the mass murders were silent[17] with perpetrators from various ethno-militant groups— from TPLF/TDF,[18] OLF–OLA,[19][20] and Gumuz armed groups.[10]

Ethnically motivated attacks [20][21][22][23] against the Amhara have been reported,[24] with mass graves being discovered in various locations.[25][11] The results of two consecutive National Census Analyses and a report by the State revealed that over 2 million Amhara could not be traced. The figure is generally associated with the decades-long massacres and enforced disappearances of the Amhara people.[25][4] From the ongoing nature of the violence,[8][10] the actual number is expected to be higher.[26] [19][20]

The Tigrayan People's Liberation Front (TPLF) among other groups were formed in the 1970s with a manifesto and plan, for Tigray to secede from Ethiopia. Previous resentments between ethnic Tigray and Amhara rulers were seeking recognition as the legitimate defender of Ethiopianism was reported. The Tigray manifesto is criticized for incorporating polarizing contents that symbolize the Amhara people as the responsible ethnic group for socio-economical, and country-level political and historical issues.[27] Violence against ordinary Amhara, its intellectuals, and civic leaders started in the early 1990s, with the armed Liberation Front groups occupying many parts of the country.[14][24]

At the end of the 17-year communist era in 1991, the ethnic-nationalist groups such as the TPLF controlled full power and this regime change triggered a series of attacks against the Amhara.[12][15] The TPLF became the dominant power and ruled the country for twenty-seven years as the EPRDF coalition— a political entity that evolved from the Marxist–Leninist rebels movement.[28] However, the “apartheid-type” regime collapsed in 2018 with several unrests and tensions built during its period.[29][30]

Following the 2018 EPRDF political reform, the Oromo-led Prosperity Party secured the position to rule the country,[31] A power struggle occurred between the former and current ruling parties which led to the Northern Ethiopia war. Reports show that a pro-TPLF youth group carried out the massacre of Amhara civilians in the town of Mai-Kadra.[17][10][32] After the withdrawal of government forces from Tigray, the Tigray Defense Forces (TDF) invaded the Amhara and the Afar regions in July 2021, massacring and causing severe destructions that are reported as serious war crimes against civilians.[20] The Mai Kadra and other massacres in the Amhara region that occurred since the start of the war has expanded the map and volume of the mass killings the already occurring violations in various places: Oromia, Benishangul-Gumuz (Metekel Zone), Tigray, the SNNPR, and the Amhara regions.[33]

  1. ^ "Amhara Massacre in Mai Kadra: A Report on the Deadliest Civilian Massacre Ethiopia" (PDF). Amhara Association of America (AAA). November 2021. Retrieved 10 May 2022.
  2. ^ a b Atnafu, Bekalu (2018). "Ethnic Cleansing in Ethiopia". Peace Research. 50 (1): 83–93.
  3. ^ Abegaz, Berhanu (March 2015). "Three Million Amara are Missing: An Analysis based on the 1994 and the 2007 Ethiopian Population Censuses". Docplayer. Retrieved 4 June 2022.
  4. ^ a b c Genocide of Amhara. 16 August 2016. Retrieved 10 May 2022 – via YouTube.
  5. ^ "Ethiopia: More Than 11 Million People in Amhara State in Need of Food Assistance, Region Hosting 263,000 IDPs". AllAfrica. 21 March 2022. Retrieved 26 May 2022. 11.6 million people in the region alone are in need of food aid.
  6. ^ "Internally Displaced People exceeding to 2 million in Amhara Region". Addis Insight. 12 November 2021. Retrieved 10 May 2022.
  7. ^ Africa, United States Congress House Committee on Foreign Affairs Subcommittee on (1993). Looking Back and Reaching Forward: Prospects for Democracy in Ethiopia : Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Africa of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, Second Session, September 17, 1992. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 105. ISBN 978-0-16-040175-6. It was this genocidal activity perpetrated singularly on the Amhara people since the take over of Transitional government; The acts of genocide that was being carried out in the provinces of Arsi, Harrarge and South Shewa
  8. ^ a b c "Lemkin Institute Statement on the Ongoing Violence Against the Amhara People". Lemkin Institute for Genocide Prevention. Archived from the original on 22 December 2022.
  9. ^ Abebe, Tewodros (18 July 2022). "Opinion: The Ethiopian genocide commands attention". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 4 November 2022. Retrieved 21 July 2022.
    • Tesfaw, Muluken (19 April 2022). The Amhara Holocaust: Accounts of the Hidden Genocide of the Amhara People in Ethiopia: 1991- 2015. Talem Publishers. ASIN B09YCBX9W3.
    • Alehegn, Derese (19 April 2022). A study of the genocide and ethnic cleansing of the Amhara ethnic: Genocide and ethnic cleansing of the Amhara. LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing. ISBN 978-6202797498.
  10. ^ a b c d "Ethiopia: In the shadow of the elections, Amharas are massacred in silence". European Times. 21 June 2021. Retrieved 23 May 2022.
  11. ^ a b c Berhanu, Girma (13 April 2022). "Victims And Victimization In Ethiopian Politics: Targeting The Amhara On Three Fronts – OpEd". Eurasia Review News Analysis. Retrieved 22 June 2022.
  12. ^ a b "Genocide Committed against the Amara (Amhara) in Ethiopia, specifically the Benishangul-Gumuz Regional State, Metekel Zone, Special Report on Genocide against the Amara (Amhara)" (PDF). Moresh Wegenie Amara Organization. 18 August 2015. Retrieved 12 May 2022.
  13. ^ Lyons, Terrence (24 June 2019). "Transnational Advocacy: Genocide or Terrorism?". Genocide Studies and Prevention. International Association of Genocide Scholars. 13 (2): 14–21. doi:10.5038/1911-9933.13.2.1702. S2CID 198579764. Retrieved 10 May 2022.
  14. ^ a b "The Hidden Massacre of Amharas & Christians in Arsi". Ethiopian Information Service Network (S.H.I.N.E). 4 December 1991. Retrieved 10 May 2022.
  15. ^ a b Yeshaw, Tekle (2016). ምጽአተ ዐማራ Mitsaete Amhara [The Plight of the Amara] (in Amharic). Gaithersburg, MD, USA: Moresh Wegenie Amara Organization. ISBN 978-0-578-18351-0.
  16. ^ "ACCOUNTABILITY: GENOCIDE OF AMHARA IN OROMIA, ETHIOPIA". Nile Journal. 16 September 2022. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  17. ^ a b "A Quest for Identity and Geographic Restoration of Wolkait-Tegede: Forceful Annexation, Violation of Human Rights and Silent Genocide". Amhara Council. Retrieved 16 January 2016.
  18. ^ "Study finding detailing mass atrocities TPLF committed on people of Amhara unveiled". Welcome to Fana Broadcasting Corporate S.C. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  19. ^ a b "Amharas: The occulted ongoing genocide in Ethiopia". 5 October 2022. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  20. ^ a b c d Review, Eurasia (1 July 2022). "Ethiopia: Mass-Atrocities, Genocide In Oromia Region Against Amhara People – OpEd". Eurasia Review. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  21. ^ "RECENT GENOCIDAL VIOLENCE IN OROMIA REGION: A Partial Documentation of Casualties Following Assassination of Oromo Vocalist Hachalu Hundessa" (PDF). The National Movement of Amhara (NaMA). October 2020. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  22. ^ Bemeraab Wollega zone Babo Gambela woreda betefetseme yezer matfat megabit 22 2013 amete meheret በምዕራብ ወለጋ ዞን ባቦ ጋምቤል ወረዳ በተፈፀመ የዘር ማጥፋት መጋቢት 22 2013 አ/ም [Genocide in Western Wollega Zone, Babo Gambela district and other places] (in Amharic). 31 March 2021. Retrieved 28 May 2022 – via YouTube.
  23. ^ Wollega wust zare ketegedelu wust 186 Amharoch wust 72tu hitsanat nachew kebotaw yederesen simut ወለጋ ውስጥ ዛሬ ከተገደሉት 186 አማሮች ውስጥ 72ቱ ህፃናት ናቸው ከቦታው የደረስንን ስሙት [Interview with survivors from Western Wollga: 186 Amhara killed; 72 of them are Children]. 31 March 2021. Retrieved 28 May 2022 – via YouTube.
  24. ^ a b "Ethiopia: Information on the treatment of Amharas in Addis Ababa". United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. 1 December 1993. Retrieved 10 May 2022.
  25. ^ a b "Statement of the Ethiopian Dialogue Forum on the Amhara Genocide". Ethiopian Dialogue Forum. 26 June 2022. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  26. ^ "Genocide Committed Against the Amara (Amhara) in Ethiopia, specifically in Benshangul-Gumuz Regional State, Metekel Zone" (PDF). Moresh Wogene via Genocide Watch. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  27. ^ Akalu, Haileeysus. "25 Years of Ethiopians Suffering: The Tigray People Liberation Front (TPLF) Genocide of The Amara People" (PDF). EthioPatriots. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  28. ^ Geremew, Bitew (2023). "The Tragedy of Colonialism in a Non-Colonised Society: Italy's Historical Narratives and the Amhara Genocide in Ethiopia". Journal of Asian and African Studies. doi:10.1177/00219096221147002. S2CID 255728651. Retrieved 13 January 2023.
  29. ^ "As a brutal civil war rages, Ethiopians in Oakland ask why the world isn't tuning in". The Oaklandside. 22 July 2022. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  30. ^ Foley, Ryan (20 April 2021). "Protesters urge Biden admin. to take action against Ethiopia for genocide of Amhara, Orthodox Christians". The Christian Post. Retrieved 22 June 2022.
  31. ^ "Atrocities Committed Against Innocent Civilians in the Arsi and Bale Regions of Ethiopia". EthioPanorama. 26 August 2020. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  32. ^ Bihonegn, Adugna Abebe; Mekonen, Aleminew Abebe (1 November 2022). ""It Only Reopens Old Wounds": Lived Experiences of Amhara Genocide Survivors From the Maikadra Massacre in Ethiopia". Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Social Services. doi:10.1177/10443894221127067. S2CID 253293924. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  33. ^ Bihonegn, Adugna; Mekonen, Aleminew (2022). ""It Only Reopens Old Wounds": Lived Experiences of Amhara Genocide Survivors From the Miakadra Massacre in Ethiopia". Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Social Services. doi:10.1177/10443894221127067. S2CID 253293924. Retrieved 16 January 2023.

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